Summary of Food-Related Uses and Health Concerns for the Compounds Discussed in This Statement

CategoryChemicalFood-Related UseSelected Health Concerns
Indirect food additivesBisphenolsPolycarbonate plastic containersEndocrine disruption38
Polymeric, epoxy resins in food and beverage cansObesogenic activity,912 neurodevelopmental disruption1316
PhthalatesClear plastic food wrapEndocrine disruption1720
Plastic tubing, storage containers used in industrial food productionObesogenic activity21,22
Multiple uses in food manufacturing equipmentOxidative stress,23,24 cardiotoxicity25,26
Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs)Grease-proof paper and paperboardImmunosupression,27,28 endocrine disruption,2931 obesogenic activity,32 decreased birth wt33
PerchlorateFood packagingThyroid hormone disruption3436
Direct food additivesNitrates and nitritesDirect additive as preservative and color enhancer, especially to meatsCarcinogenicity,3739 thyroid hormone disruption40,41