TABLE 1

Proportion of US Middle and High School Students Who Reported Ever and Current Use of Hookah as Well as the Proportion Who Overestimated Hookah Use Among Their Peers, NYTS 2016

NEver Use of Hookah,a % (95% CI)Current Use of Hookah,b % (95% CI)Overestimation of Peer Hookah Use,c % (95% CI)
Overall20 67510.5 (10.0–11.0)3.6 (3.3–3.9)59.3 (58.4–60.2)
Sex
 Male 10 43810.1 (9.4–10.9)3.5 (3.0–3.9)51.5 (50.2–52.7)
 Female10 08210.9 (10.1–11.7)3.8 (3.3–4.2)67.2 (65.9–68.4)
Grade
 Sixth 32352.6 (1.9–3.4)1.2 (0.7–1.6)32.0 (29.7–34.3)
 Seventh32494.7 (3.7–5.7)2.5 (1.6–3.3)42.3 (40.0–44.5)
 Eighth31746.5 (5.5–7.6)2.4 (1.7–3.0)53.2 (50.8–55.5)
 Ninth27418.0 (6.9–9.2)3.0 (2.3–3.7)75.5 (73.5–77.5)
 10th280913.4 (11.8–15.0)4.5 (3.5–5.5)81.5 (79.8–83.3)
 11th267417.6 (15.9–19.3)5.0 (4.0–6.0)65.4 (63.2–67.6)
 12th267322.7 (20.7–24.7)7.2 (5.9–8.4)66.4 (64.1–68.7)
School
 Middle 96584.6 (4.1–5.2)2.0 (1.6–2.4)42.5 (41.2–43.8)
 High 10 89715.1 (14.3–15.9)4.8 (4.3–5.3)72.6 (71.5–73.6)
Race and/or ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic 81419.3 (8.5–10.0)2.9 (2.5–3.4)55.5 (54.2–56.9)
 African American, non-Hispanic30509.6 (8.3–10.8)3.5 (2.7–4.4)63.5 (61.3–65.7)
 Asian American, non-Hispanic10364.5 (3.1–5.9)48.3 (44.5–52.2)
 Hispanic579314.4 (13.2–15.5)5.3 (4.6–6.1)67.5 (65.9–69.1)
 Other, non-Hispanic165412.8 (10.4–15.1)4.8 (3.3–6.3)62.4 (59.1–65.7)
Hookah use statusd
 Never 17 56256.2 (55.3–57.2)
 Former139583.0 (80.4–85.6)
 Occasional current56490.0 (88.1–92.4)
 Frequent current19996.3 (93.9–98.7)
Nonhookah tobacco product usee
 Never 13 2871.7 (1.5–1.9)0.4 (0.3–0.6)53.8 (52.7–54.8)
 Former362720.8 (19.1–22.5)4.6 (3.7–5.5)69.6 (67.6–71.6)
 Current224441.5 (38.9–44.0)18.2 (16.2–20.1)73.3 (70.9–75.7)
Year(s) since first hookah usef
 Never 17 84656.1 (55.2–57.1)
 <140339.6 (33.7–45.6)91.4 (87.9–95.0)
 169531.6 (27.2–36.0)88.7 (85.5–91.9)
 2+85328.1 (23.0–33.2)83.7 (80.2–87.1)
Tobacco use by household member
 None 13 5697.4 (6.8–7.9)2.3 (2.0–2.6)56.9 (55.9–58.0)
 Hookah (alone or with other products)44052.2 (46.1–58.4)35.7 (29.6–41.7)86.4 (82.4–90.5)
 Nonhookah onlyg666614.2 (13.2–15.3)4.4 (3.7–5.0)62.1 (60.6–63.6)
Do you speak a language other than English at home?
 No 13 1659.2 (8.6–9.8)2.9 (2.5–3.3)57.3 (56.2–58.4)
 Yes651613.2 (12.2–14.3)5.0 (4.3–5.7)64.6 (63.1–66.1)
  • χ2 test results were significant in all subgroups for hookah ever use, current use, and overestimation. CI, confidence interval; —, <30 persons or relative SE ≥30%.

  • a Defined as use of hookah on at least 1 d during lifetime.

  • b Defined as use of hookah on at least 1 d in the past 30 d.

  • c Respondents were asked how many students in their grade they thought used hookah out of 10 (perceived prevalence). A difference score (δ) was computed to measure the gap between perceived prevalence and grade-specific actual prevalence. Respondents were then dichotomized as either overestimating (δ >0) or not overestimating (δ ≤0) peer hookah use.

  • d Never hookah users reported never smoking hookah in their lifetime, former users last smoked hookah >30 d ago, current occasional users smoked hookah on less than one-third of the past 30 d (1–9 d), and current frequent users smoked hookah on greater than or equal to one-third of the past 30 d (10–30 d).

  • e Assessed nonhookah products included e-cigarettes, cigarettes, bidis, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Never users had used none of these tobacco products in their lifetime, former users last used 1 or more >30 d ago, and current users last used 1 or more ≤30 d ago.

  • f Respondents were asked at what age they first used hookah as well as their current age. The only response option that was not a discrete number (“19 y or older”) was coded as “19” to allow for arithmetic computations. The number of y since first trying hookah was current age minus age at first trying hookah.

  • g Assessed nonhookah product use by household members included e-cigarettes, cigarettes, bidis, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco.