TABLE 5

Associations Between Parents’ Specific ACE and Children’s BPI Scores

History of Specific ACE in Either Parent (n = 2397)Average Increase in Total BPI Score When ACE Present in Either Parent (95% CI)
Divorce1.06 points (0.40 to 1.73)a
Emotional abuse1.49 points (0.80 to 2.18)b
Physical abuse1.10 points (0.45 to 1.74)c
Sexual abuse1.77 points (0.49 to 3.05)a
Neglect0.54 points (−0.46 to 1.53)
Exposure to mental illness in household1.39 points (0.74 to 2.04)a
Exposure to illicit substance use in household1.28 points (0.59 to 1.96)b
Exposure to intimate partner violence in household0.53 points (−0.14 to 1.19)
Death or estrangement of caregiver(s)1.11 points (−0.14 to 2.36)
  • a Indicates statistically significant result at α < .001 threshold.

  • b Indicates statistically significant result at α < .01 threshold.

  • c Indicates statistically significant result at α < .05 threshold.