TABLE 3

Characteristics Associated With Hookah Smoking Within Different Social Settings Among Past 30-Days Hookah Smokers in Grades 6–12, NYTS 2016 (n = 1179)

CharacteristicsFriend’s House, aOR (95% CI)My House, aOR (95% CI)Other Family Member’s House, aOR (95% CI)Hookah Bar, Restaurant, Cafe, aOR (95% CI)Another Place Not Otherwise Specified, aOR (95% CI)
Overestimation of peer hookah usea
 No ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Yes2.72 (0.95–7.83)1.93 (0.68–5.47)2.69 (0.48–15.07)0.94 (0.25–3.52)0.40 (0.13–1.17)
 Indeterminate1.43 (0.29–7.08)1.39 (0.31–6.30)2.94 (0.30–28.87)2.90 (0.54–15.57)
Tobacco use by household member
 No tobacco product ReferentReferentReferentReferent Referent
 Hookah (alone or with other products)1.05 (0.60–1.84)3.40 (1.92–6.02)*1.01 (0.53–1.93)2.52 (1.30–4.89)*0.46 (0.23–0.92)*
 Nonhookah tobacco aloneb0.97 (0.62–1.52)1.76 (1.11–2.79)*0.36 (0.20–0.63)*0.99 (0.59–1.68)0.56 (0.33–0.97)*
 Indeterminate
Sex
 Male ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Female1.33 (0.90–1.97)1.16 (0.77–1.75)0.94 (0.57–1.54)1.05 (0.64–1.72)1.17 (0.74–1.85)
 Indeterminate5.84 (1.34–25.39)*0.99 (0.06–17.14)1.26 (0.08–18.99)2.12 (0.39–11.68)0.37 (0.03–3.98)
School level
 Middle ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 High1.11 (0.68–1.79)1.22 (0.77–1.94)3.35 (1.69–6.66)*0.91 (0.54–1.54)0.34 (0.20–0.57)*
 Indeterminate2.95 (0.52–16.67)3.11 (0.46–21.21)1.92 (0.21–17.71)3.15 (0.35–28.59)0.09 (0.01–0.68)*
Race and/or ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 African American, non-Hispanic0.44 (0.23–0.83)*1.11 (0.59–2.09)0.97 (0.45–2.09)1.71 (0.83–3.52)0.67 (0.30–1.53)
 Asian American, non-Hispanic0.39 (0.09–1.73)0.60 (0.15–2.35)2.42 (0.59–9.91)0.58 (0.10–3.28)1.14 (0.24–5.35)
 Hispanic0.64 (0.39–1.07)0.75 (0.45–1.25)0.69 (0.36–1.29)1.37 (0.75–2.51)0.78 (0.44–1.36)
 Other, non-Hispanic0.99 (0.46–2.09)1.51 (0.74–3.08)0.68 (0.27–1.72)1.63 (0.69–3.85)1.27 (0.54–2.99)
 Indeterminate0.67 (0.25–1.81)1.32 (0.52–3.36)2.11 (0.72–6.19)1.87 (0.63–5.51)
Do you speak a language other than English at home?
 No ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Yes0.79 (0.51–1.23)1.13 (0.73–1.76)1.34 (0.76–2.38)0.88 (0.54–1.44)1.01 (0.63–1.62)
 Indeterminate2.34 (0.69–7.94)2.67 (0.88–8.08)0.76 (0.19–3.10)4.00 (1.25–12.81)*0.09 (0.02–0.38)*
Years since first hookah usec
 <1ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 11.64 (0.92–2.92)1.46 (0.76–2.78)1.48 (0.75–2.92)0.85 (0.37–1.97)0.99 (0.51–1.92)
 2+1.13 (0.66–1.92)2.47 (1.30–4.70)*0.86 (0.44–1.66)1.47 (0.67–3.20)0.80 (0.43–1.49)
 Indeterminate0.75 (0.32–1.75)1.48 (0.54–4.02)0.37 (0.11–1.24)2.38 (0.87–6.48)1.04 (0.39–2.73)
Frequency of hookah use (past 30 d)
 1–2 d ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 3–5 d1.23 (0.73–2.08)2.03 (1.22–3.38)*0.81 (0.42–1.54)0.84 (0.40–1.74)0.94 (0.49–1.79)
 6–29 d1.02 (0.62–1.71)1.87 (1.13–3.09)*0.73 (0.40–1.33)1.96 (1.12–3.42)*0.97 (0.48–1.96)
 30 d0.64 (0.33–1.25)1.37 (0.70–2.68)1.37 (0.57–3.32)3.05 (1.44–6.45)*2.81 (1.40–5.63)*
 Indeterminate3.65 (0.49–27.23)3.54 (0.54–23.10)2.86 (0.21–39.54)0.06 (0.00–1.25)
Hookah flavor preference (past 30 d)d
 Nonflavored ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Flavored 1.54 (1.02–2.32)*1.75 (1.15–2.65)*1.32 (0.79–2.19)1.88 (1.13–3.13)*1.09 (0.68–1.74)
 Indeterminate0.57 (0.21–1.54)2.38 (0.87–6.51)3.22 (0.78–13.39)0.76 (0.27–2.10)1.30 (0.43–3.92)
Cigarette smoking (past 30 d)e
 No use at all ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Nonmenthol use0.57 (0.31–1.04)1.93 (1.09–3.40)*1.76 (0.87–3.52)1.33 (0.64–2.73)0.73 (0.36–1.47)
 Menthol product use0.89 (0.52–1.53)0.83 (0.49–1.40)1.23 (0.60–2.52)0.81 (0.41–1.59)0.96 (0.52–1.77)
 Indeterminate0.39 (0.20–0.76)*0.64 (0.32–1.29)0.97 (0.41–2.30)0.78 (0.37–1.65)0.89 (0.39–2.02)
Other tobacco product use (past 30 d)e
 No use at all ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Nonflavored product use1.72 (0.93–3.16)1.69 (0.82–3.50)0.70 (0.31–1.61)0.39 (0.16–0.93)0.68 (0.31–1.47)
 Flavored product use2.32 (1.31–4.11)*1.85 (1.00–3.40)1.26 (0.64–2.51)0.66 (0.33–1.32)0.82 (0.41–1.68)
 Indeterminate1.41 (0.64–3.09)1.90 (0.83–4.32)0.83 (0.31–2.17)0.38 (0.15–0.98)0.70 (0.20–2.39)
Attempted tobacco purchase in past 30 df
 No attempt ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 1+ attempt (regardless of success)0.83 (0.52–1.33)0.68 (0.44–1.06)2.39 (1.36–4.20)*1.62 (0.92–2.86)1.58 (0.91–2.73)
 Indeterminate0.77 (0.27–2.23)0.57 (0.18–1.80)1.57 (0.46–5.37)2.45 (0.66–9.18)0.71 (0.20–2.49)
  • The study denominator (n = 1179) includes persons who indicated past 30-d hookah smoking on at least 1 of 3 questions assessing use of any hookah in the past 30 d, use of flavored hookah in the past 30 d, and place smoked hookah in the past 30 d. Binary logistic regression analyses were controlled for all factors listed. Indeterminate responses include missing or “not sure” responses. CI, confidence interval; —, <30 persons or relative SE ≥30%.

  • a Respondents were asked how many students in their grade they thought smoked hookah out of 10 (perceived prevalence). A difference score (δ) was computed to measure the gap between perceived prevalence and grade-specific actual prevalence. Respondents were then dichotomized as either overestimating (δ >0) or not overestimating (δ ≤0) peer hookah use.

  • b Assessed nonhookah product use by household members included e-cigarettes, cigarettes, bidis, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco.

  • c Respondents were asked at what age they first used hookah as well as their current age. The only response option that was not a discrete number (“19 y or older”) was coded as “19” to allow for arithmetic computations. The number of y since first trying hookah was current age minus age at first trying hookah.

  • d Flavored hookah preference was defined as past 30-d use of a variety of hookah that was “flavored to taste like menthol (mint), alcohol (wine, cognac), candy, fruit, chocolate, or other sweets.”

  • e Assessed nonhookah, noncigarette tobacco products included e-cigarettes, bidis, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Never users had used none of these tobacco products in their lifetime, former users last used 1 or more >30 d ago, and current users last used 1 or more ≤30 d ago.

  • f Assessed with the question, “During the past 30 d, did anyone refuse to sell you any tobacco products because of your age?” Response options were, “I did not try to buy any tobacco products during the past 30 d” (ie, no attempt), “yes” (ie, unsuccessful attempt), and “no” (successful attempt). The 2 latter groups were combined as 1 category as having made at least 1 attempt.

  • * P < .05.