TABLE 3

Logistic Regression Model and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

OutcomesEarly-Caffeine Group (N = 1545), n (%)Late-Caffeine Group (N = 563), n (%)aOR (95% CI)aPS-Based aOR (95% CI),b 445 Pairs in Each Group
sNDI230 (14.9)118 (21.2)0.68 (0.50–0.94)c0.95 (0.70–1.29)
NDI740 (48.1)304 (54.7)0.86 (0.67–1.11)0.93 (0.72–1.20)
CP59 (3.9)43 (7.9)N/Ad0.56 (0.32–0.98)c
Visual impairment22 (1.5)13 (2.6)N/Ad0.81 (0.35–1.85)
Hearing impairment100 (6.8)54 (10.5)N/Ad0.56 (0.36–0.89)c
Bayley-III cognitive composite score <85194 (13.4)91 (17.6)0.67 (0.47–0.95)c0.91 (0.65–1.29)
Bayley-III language composite score <85459 (33.1)205 (40.3)0.81 (0.61–1.06)0.97 (0.74–1.28)
Bayley-III motor composite score <85275 (19.8)125 (25.3)0.81 (0.59–1.10)1.04 (0.77–1.41)
  • N/A, not available.

  • a Adjusted for GA, antenatal steroids, SNAP-II score, sex, and center.

  • b Adjusted for GA, sex, small for GA, antenatal steroids, and SNAP-II score.

  • c Denotes statistically significant results.

  • d Model did not converge because of a low number of events and high degree of freedom by including centers.