TABLE 5

RR for DRE by ILAE 2017 Seizure Classification

CWEa With Identified Causeb (n = 196) Overall Proportion of DRE: 48%CWE Without Identified Cause (n = 404) Overall Proportion of DRE: 21%
Crude RR for DREc (99% CI)Adjustedd RR for DRE (99% CI)Crude RR for DREc (99% CI)Adjustedd RR for DRE (99% CI)
Seizure classification
 Focal seizures, any type
  Yes2.0 (1.0–4.1)1.0 (0.6–1.9)1.4 (0.8–2.4)1.1 (0.7–1.9)
  No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
 Generalized seizuresd
  Tonic-clonic seizures
   Yes1.6 (1.1–2.3)1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.1 (0.6–2.1)0.8 (0.4–1.5)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
  Tonic seizures
   Yes2.2 (1.6–3.1)1.3 (1.0–1.7)2.9 (1.7–4.9)1.6 (1.0–2.7)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
  Myoclonic seizures
   Yes2.5 (1.8–3.5)1.5 (1.1–2.0)3.7 (2.3–5.9)1.5 (0.8–2.7)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
  Atonic seizures
   Yes1.7 (1.2–2.5)1.2 (0.9–1.6)1.9 (0.8–4.9)1.0 (0.4–2.3)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
  Typical absence seizures
   YesNot estimatedNot estimated1.2 (0.6–2.4)1.4 (0.8–2.4)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)
  Atypical or other absence seizures
   Yes1.2 (0.7–2.0)1.1 (0.7–1.6)2.2 (1.2–4.0)1.4 (0.8–2.3)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
 Unclassifiable seizures
  Epileptic spasms
   Yes1.5 (1.0–2.2)1.0 (0.8–1.4)3.1 (1.8–5.4)1.8 (1.2–2.8)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
  Other unclassifiable seizures
   Yes1.2 (0.8–1.9)0.9 (0.7–1.3)0.5 (0.2–1.5)0.5 (0.2–1.2)
   No1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
  • —, not applicable.

  • a CWE, according to the new definition (ILAE 2014) and at least 1 y of follow-up since onset.

  • b Includes structural, genetic, metabolic, and infectious causes. There were large degrees of overlap between these categories. No CWE had immunologic etiology.

  • c DRE, defined as failure to achieve ≥1 y of seizure freedom at end of follow-up despite trial of ≥2 antiepileptic drugs in monotherapy or in combination. The intermediate category includes seizure outcomes in between DRE and ≥1 y of seizure freedom.

  • d Adjusted for number of seizure types (1–2 vs ≥3).