TABLE 1

Characteristics of the Study Population, 2008–2015 (N = 115 856)

CharacteristicTotal2008–20112012–2015
All encounters9 574 2294 361 6955 212 534
SI and SA encounters115 85635 266 (30.4)80 590 (69.6)
Percentage of all encounters classified as SI or SA1.21%0.81%1.55%
Patient type
 Inpatient 67 588 (58.3)21 512 (61)46 076 (57.2)
 ED48 268 (41.7)13 754 (39)34 514 (42.8)
 ICU8913 (7.7)3104 (8.8)5809 (7.2)
Age group
 5–11 y14 852 (12.8)4703 (13.3)10 149 (12.6)
 12–14 y42 844 (37)11 967 (33.9)30 877 (38.3)
 15–17 y58 160 (50.2)18 596 (52.7)39 564 (49.1)
Median age (IQR)15 (13, 16)15 (13, 16)14 (13, 16)
Sex
 Boy41 239 (35.6)13 908 (39.4)27 331 (33.9)
 Girl74 599 (64.4)21 353 (60.5)53 246 (66.1)
Race and/or ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white67 101 (57.9)19 844 (56.3)47 257 (58.6)
 Non-Hispanic African American23 858 (20.6)8055 (22.8)15 803 (19.6)
 Hispanic13 381 (11.5)3657 (10.4)9724 (12.1)
 Other11 516 (9.9)3710 (10.5)7806 (9.7)
CCCa9313 (8)2895 (8.2)6418 (8)
Payer
 Government59 973 (51.8)18 240 (51.7)41 733 (51.8)
 Private51 034 (44)13 819 (39.2)37 215 (46.2)
 Other4849 (4.2)3207 (9.1)1642 (2)
Median household incomeb
 Quartile 127 903 (24.1)9289 (26.3)18 614 (23.1)
 Quartile 235 358 (30.5)10 620 (30.1)24 738 (30.7)
 Quartile 337 565 (32.4)10 918 (31)26 647 (33.1)
 Quartile 412 885 (11.1)3804 (10.8)9081 (11.3)
Median distance traveled (IQR)c10.9 (5.6, 20.2)10.2 (5.4, 19.7)11.1 (5.7, 20.2)
No. and % of children traveling >20 miles 28 950 (25)8644 (24.5)20 306 (25.2)
Length of stay, d
 0–162 716 (58.3)18 717 (53.1)43 999 (54.6)
 2–314 909 (12.9)4607 (13.1)10 302 (12.8)
 4–619 921 (17.2)5545 (15.7)14 376 (17.8)
 ˃718 310 (15.8)6397 (18.1)11 913 (14.8)
Season
 Spring32 807 (28.3)9931 (28.2)22 876 (28.4)
 Summer21 314 (18.4)6613 (18.8)14 701 (18.2)
 Fall32 593 (28.1)9918 (28.1)22 675 (28.1)
 Winter29 142 (25.2)8804 (25)20 338 (25.2)
  • Values expressed as total number and percentage unless otherwise specified.

  • a Ref 26.

  • b Data missing for 2145 encounters (1.9%).

  • c The distance traveled was calculated as the linear distance between the centroid of each patient’s residential zip code and the centroid of the hospital’s zip code.