TABLE 3

Systematic Review: Individual Study Characteristics (n = 14)

ReferenceStudy DesignPopulation SourceMean Age (SD, when provided)Total No. of Subjects (Case and Control Group)Assessor’s Profession
FASD diagnosis (n = 4)
 Age range, 0 – <2 y
  Davies et al 201136,aCohort with control groupRecruited subjects were born between 2002 and 2003 in the public hospital at De Aar, South Africa.(1) Not reported: 7–12 mo; (2) Not reported: 17–21 mo(1) n = 392; (2) n = 83Not reported
 Age range 5 – <10 y
  Adnams et al 200128,aCohort with matched control groupExposed subjects were recruited from Grade 1 classes in Cape Town, South Africa. Reference group subjects were selected from the above sample whose mothers did not admit to moderate or heavy drinking during pregnancy.Cohort: 7.0 (0.5) y; Control: 7.1 (0.5) yn = 68Not reported
  Kooistra et al 200932,aCohort with control groupADHD subjects were recruited from 2 private schools and 1 clinic specializing in learning and attention problems. FASD subjects were recruited through the FASD clinic at a regional pediatric hospital. Reference group subjects were recruited from 2 participating elementary schools. All subjects were from the Calgary, Canada region.Cohort: 8.8 (1.2) y; Control: 9.1 (1.1) yn = 116Not reported
  Jirikowic et al 201338,aCohort with matched control groupExposed group subjects were recruited from the University of Washington Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnostic and Prevention Network clinical registry and database. Reference group subjects were recruited from a university research participant pool and matched for age and gender.Cohort: 1 1.9 (2.5) y; Control: 12.0 (2.5) yn = 20Physical therapist or occupational therapist.
Moderate to heavy alcohol exposure or binge drinking (n = 5)
 Age range, 0 – <2 y
  Smith et al 198635Cohort with control groupSubjects were recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital, Georgia, between January 1981 and September 1983.Cohort: 3 d; Control: 3 dn = 149Psychologist
  Coles et al 198731,aCohort with control groupSubjects were recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital, Georgia, between January 1981 and July 1984.Cohort: 3 d; Control: 3 dn = 103Not reported
 Age range, 2 – <5 y
  Barr et al 199027Cohort with control groupSubjects were recruited at 2 unspecified study hospitals (Seattle, WA).Cohort: 4.3 (0.04) y; Control: 4.3 (0.04) yn = 449Psychologist
 Age range, 5 – <10 y
  Bay et al 201212Cohort with control groupSubjects were recruited from Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003 and form a sample known as the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study.Cohort: 5.2 y; Control: 5.2 yn = 685Physiotherapist
  Kesmodel et al 201339,aCohort with control groupSubjects were recruited from Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003 and form a sample known as the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study.Cohort: 5.2 y; Control: 5.2 yn = 678Physiotherapist
FASD and moderate to heavy alcohol exposure (n = 5)
 Age range, 0 – <2 y
  Autti-Rämö and Granström 199130,aCohort with control groupSubjects were recruited from a special clinic for pregnant women with chronic alcohol abuse at the University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, between 1983 and 1986. Reference group subjects were recruited from volunteer mothers abstinent throughout their pregnancy (n = 19) or the successive births of low risk pregnancies (n = 37). Either source was not reported.Not reported: 18–19 mon = 109Not reported
 Age range, 5 – <10 y
  Aronson et al 198529Cohort with matched control groupExposed subjects were recruited from a retrospective Swedish study of all the 103 children born live of alcoholic women, with the 21 youngest selected. Reference group subjects were matched for baseline characteristics, but the source was not reported.Not reported: 1.5– 9 yn = 42Not reported
  Kyllerman et al 198533,aCohort with matched control groupExposed subjects were recruited from a retrospective Swedish study of all the 103 children born live of alcoholic women, with the 21 youngest selected. Reference group subjects were matched for baseline characteristics, but the source was not reported.Cohort: 5.8 (2.2) y; Control: 6.1 (2.1) yn = 42Not reported
 Age range, 10 – ≤18 y
  Roebuck et al 199834,aCohort with matched control groupBoth exposed and reference group subjects were recruited from a larger study at the Centre for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State University.Cohort: 12.1 (0.6) y; Control: 12.0 (0.6) yn = 22Not reported
  Simmons et al 201037,aCohort with control groupBoth exposed and reference group subjects were recruited from a pool of registered children at the Centre for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State University.FAS: 13.1 (3.3) y; PAE: 13.0 (2.2) y; Control: 13.6 (2.0) yn = 51Not reported
  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  • a Studies included in meta-analysis.