TABLE 1

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria
 Design
  Human observational studies including cross sectional, cohort, case control studies, and population based surveys.
 Participants
  Ages 0 to ≤18 y.
 Exposure
  FASD diagnoses determined by using internationally recognized standardized diagnostic criteria
  or
  PAE in utero at moderate to heavy risk levels as deemed by study author
  or
  Confirmed alcohol dependent or binge drinking mother during pregnancy as deemed by study author.
 Outcomes
  GM performance measured with a standardized assessment tool.
  Assessment of GM specific domains such as strength, endurance, balance, coordination, agility, ball skills, power, head control, or core stability.
  Quantitative size effect including either an SE, SD, or CI.
  Adjustment for other reported prenatal substance use.
  GM impairment defined as a diminished GM proficiency as deemed by each study author.
Exclusion Criteria
 GM function was not evaluated.
 The outcome was self-reported by the mother (a potential source of observer bias).
 Subjects had a genetic or other motor disorder in conjunction with an FASD.