TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics at Baseline (Postpartum) of Families in the Analytic Sample for Each Aim

By VIP 0–3 Status (Aim 1)By VIP 3–5 Status (Aim 2)By Combined VIP 0–3 and VIP 3–5 Status (Aim 3)
Control 0–3 Years (n = 132)VIP 0–3 (n = 143)PaControl 3–5 Years (n = 129)VIP 3–5 (n = 123)PaControl 0–3 Years + Control 3–5 Years (n = 59)VIP 0–3 + Control 3–5 Years (n = 70)Control 0–3 Years + VIP 3–5 (n = 61)VIP 0–3 + VIP 3–5 (n = 62)Pa
Family low SESb91%93%.6593%92%.9993%93%93%92%.99
Family increased psychosocial riskc29%34%.4432%30%.7936%29%23%37%.30
Mother not high school graduate61%67%.3161%67%.3659%63%62%73%.45
Mother with low literacy (less than ninth grade)25%36%.0733%28%.4122%41%25%31%.07
Mother married or partnered83%83%.9984%85%.7383%84%84%87%.93
Mother age <21 y9%8%.995%13%.0487%4%13%13%.20
Mother Hispanic96%94%.7993%97%.2693%93%97%97%.62
Mother born outside United States88%94%.1093%91%.6492%94%85%97%.10
Mother primary language Spanish86%89%.4786%92%.1685%87%88%95%.29
Mean child age in mo (SD)57.8 (4.3)58.0 (4.8).7757.2 (3.7)57.9 (4.2).1456.9 (3.5)57.4 (3.9)57.9 (4.1)57.9 (4.2).43
Firstborn child36%41%.4740%39%.9932%46%39%39%.48
Female child51%57%.2856%52%.6153%59%48%57%.61
  • a P value based on χ2 tests for comparisons of proportions and t tests and/or analysis of variance tests for comparisons of means.

  • b Low SES was defined as a Hollingshead 4 Factor Index of 4 or 5.

  • c Increased psychosocial risk was defined as having 1 or more of the following: homelessness, being a victim of violence, having involvement with child protection, financial difficulties, food insecurity, smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy, or previous mental illness, including depression.