TABLE 1

Participant Characteristics

CategoryBoysGirlsP
Prepubertal (n = 26)Postpubertal (n = 26)Prepubertal (n = 24)Postpubertal (n = 20)
Age, mean ± SEM, y8.62 ± 0.12 a 16.08 ± 0.128.38 ± 0.12 a 15.75 ± 0.14<.0001
BMI, mean ± SEM19.19 ± 0.94 a 24.57 ± 0.9417.12 ± 0.98 a 22.95 ± 1.07<.0001
Average daily caffeine consumption, mean ± SEM, mg/d26.84 ± 6.83 a 92.34 ± 14.5628.00 ± 7.48 a 61.91 ± 9.06<.0001
Socioeconomic status, mean ± SEM50.9 ± 1.5 b 49.6 ± 1.9 b 45.1 ± 2.543.4 ± 2.3.004
Child race/ethnicity, n (%).48
 Asian1 (4)0 (0)1 (4)0 (0)
 Black or African American3 (13)5 (19)2 (9)6 (30)
 White20 (83)21 (81)19 (83)14 (70)
 Other0 (0)0 (0)1 (4)0 (0)
Parental education, n (%).48
 High school1 (4)3 (12)2 (8)0 (0)
 Some college3 (12)6 (23)5 (21)6 (30)
 Completed college13 (52)11 (42)7 (29)10 (50)
 Graduate school8 (32)6 (23)10 (42)4 (20)
Household income, n (%).99
 <$30 0001 (4)2 (8)2 (10)3 (17)
 $30 000–$50 0004 (17)5 (20)2 (10)3 (17)
 $50 000–$70 0005 (22)2 (8)2 (10)1 (6)
 $70 000–$110 0009 (39)11 (44)10 (48)8 (44)
 >$110 0004 (17)5 (20)5 (21)2 (11)
Socioeconomic status category, n (%).11
 I0 (0)0 (0)1 (4)0 (0)
 II0 (0)2 (8)2 (8)4 (20)
 III9 (36)7 (27)9 (38)9 (45)
 IV15 (60)16 (62)12 (60)7 (35)
 V1 (4)1 (3)0 (0%)0 (0%)
  • a Significant difference by pubertal group (P < .0001).

  • b Significant difference by gender (P < .05).