Multivariable Relative Risk of Teen Pregnancy in a US-Based Cohort of Young Women (N = 7120)

Teen Pregnancy RR (95% CI)
Individual Variable ModelsaModels Simultaneously Adjusted for Other Significant Variablesb
Sexual orientation
 Completely heterosexual with no same-sex partnersRefRef
 Completely heterosexual with same-sex partners1.51 (0.56–4.03)1.71 (0.62–4.74)
 Mostly heterosexual1.78 (1.18–2.69)1.32 (0.73–2.37)
 Bisexual4.67 (2.74–7.97)2.34 (1.14–4.81)
 Lesbian2.37 (0.76–7.37)1.14 (0.16–8.13)
Potential risk factors in all participants
 Childhood gender nonconformityc
  Below medianRefN/Ab
  Above median, below decile0.90 (0.64–1.26)N/Ab
  Top decile1.00 (0.65–1.55)N/Ab
 Childhood physical and/or emotional abuse
  Quintile 1, leastRef.Ref
  Quintile 20.58 (0.29–1.16)0.52 (0.24–1.09)
  Quintile 30.83 (0.43–1.58)0.62 (0.30–1.27)
  Quintile 41.04 (0.56–1.92)0.62 (0.30–1.27)
  Quintile 5, most2.30 (1.34–3.95)1.65 (0.90–3.03)
 Childhood threatened and/or actual physical assault
  Rarely or sometimes0.93 (0.48–1.77)N/Ab
  Often or very often1.33 (0.64–2.76)N/Ab
  Childhood sexual abuse4.81 (2.78–8.32)2.97 (1.52–5.79)
  No bullying involvementRefRef
  Victim only0.93 (0.47–1.85)0.56 (0.22–1.43)
  Perpetrator only2.95 (1.88–4.63)2.27 (1.30–3.97)
  Victim and perpetrator2.40 (1.44–4.00)1.98 (1.09–3.62)
Potential risk factors among participants who are sexual minorities
 Sexual minority developmental milestonesd
  Late adolescence and/or young adulthoodRefN/Ab
  Middle adolescence5.67 (1.30–24.82)N/Ab
  Early adolescence3.15 (0.61–16.18)N/Ab
 Sexual orientation–related stresse0.97 (0.71–1.31)N/Ab
 Sexual minority outnessf
  Everyone knowsRef.N/Ab
  Most or a few people know0.86 (0.40–1.84)N/Ab
  No one knows0.48 (0.15–1.54)N/Ab
 LGB social activity involvementg
  ≥6 times per yRefN/Ab
  <6 times per y1.51 (0.37–6.22)N/Ab
  Never2.14 (0.49–9.28)N/Ab
  • N/A, not applicable.

  • a Each model used to assess the association with teen pregnancy is adjusted for age and race and/or ethnicity and is not adjusted for other variables.

  • b The model used to assess the association with teen pregnancy is adjusted for age and race and/or ethnicity and is simultaneously adjusted for the other statistically significant variables (sexual orientation, childhood physical and/or emotional abuse, childhood sexual abuse, and bullying); therefore, the other risk factors do not have any estimate in this model.

  • c Median was based on 4 items from the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity and Gender Role Questionnaire.

  • d The age at which sexual minority identification, same-sex attraction, or same-sex sexual contact first occurred, categorized as late adolescence and/or young adulthood (ages 18–27 y), middle adolescence (ages 14–17 y), or early adolescence (ages ≤13 y).

  • e Sexual orientation–related stress was assessed via questions about the extent to which participants wished they were not attracted to the same sex, with response options 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree); higher scores are used to indicate more stress and RR of teen pregnancy for a 1 U change in sexual orientation–related stress.

  • f Mean of 3 items on outness to family, friends, and people at school or work.

  • g Mean of 3 items on frequency of LGB social activity involvement.