TABLE 1

Characteristics by Sexual Orientation in a US-Based Cohort of Young Women (N = 7120)

Completely Heterosexual With No Same-Sex PartnersCompletely Heterosexual With Same-Sex PartnersMostly HeterosexualBisexualLesbianPa
84%, n = 60032%, n = 13111%, n = 7742%, n = 1501%, n = 62
Demographics, % (n)
 Mean age in 1996, y, SD, range: 9–15 y11.6, 1.611.3, 1.411.3, 1.711.6, 1.711.4, 1.6<.0001
 White race and/or ethnicity94 (5651)92 (120)91 (702)91 (136)90 (56).001
Potential risk factors in all participants, % (n)
 Childhood gender nonconformityb
  Below median57 (3400)54 (71)44 (340)32 (48)32 (20)
  Above median, below top decile31 (1847)34 (45)34 (266)38 (57)18 (1511
  Top decile13 (756)12 (15)22 (168)30 (45)50 (31)<.0001
 Childhood physical and/or emotional abuse, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, % (n)
  Quintile 1, least21 (945)15 (17)13 (78)6 (7)10 (5)
  Quintile 223 (1080)21 (24)20 (123)13 (15)17 (8)
  Quintile 322 (989)26 (30)19 (116)16 (19)8 (4)
  Quintile 420 (898)18 (21)23 (142)24 (28)31 (15)
  Quintile 5, most15 (684)21 (24)26 (162)41 (47)33 (16)<.0001
 Childhood threatened and/or actual physical assault, Conflict Tactic Scales, % (n)
  Never9 (408)10 (11)8 (51)6 (7)13 (6)
  Rarely or sometimes77 (3535)72 (84)70 (435)62 (72)71 (34)
  Often or very often14 (651)18 (21)22 (135)32 (37)17 (8)<.0001
  Childhood sexual abuse2 (106)7 (8)5 (33)11 (12)4 (2)<.0001
 Bullying, % (n)
  None77 (3113)63 (64)69 (373)59 (62)67 (28)
  Victim only9 (358)6 (6)13 (69)15 (16)17 (7)
  Perpetrator only7 (285)18 (18)8 (45)14 (15)7 (3)
  Victim and perpetrator7 (275)14 (14)10 (53)11 (12)10 (4)<.0001
Potential risk factors among participants who are sexual minorities, % (n)
 Sexual minority developmental milestonesc
  Late adolescence and/or young adulthoodN/AdN/Ad38 (168)20 (20)11 (5)
  Middle adolescenceN/AdN/Ad40 (176)42 (43)44 (20)
  Early adolescenceN/AdN/Ad22 (96)38 (39)44 (20)<.0001
 Sexual orientation–related stress,e mean, SDN/AdN/Ad2.3, 1.01.9, 0.91.7, 0.8<.0001
 Sexual minority outnessf
  Everyone knowsN/AdN/Ad9 (50)38 (52)69 (36)
  Most or a few people knowN/AdN/Ad70 (409)58 (79)29 (15)
  No one knowsN/AdN/Ad22 (129)4 (5)2 (1)<.0001
 LGB social activity involvementg
  ≥6 times per yN/AdN/Ad3 (23)17 (24)56 (30)
  <6 times per yN/AdN/Ad66 (462)72 (100)43 (23)
  NeverN/AdN/Ad31 (219)10 (14)2 (1)<.0001
Outcome, % (n)
 Any pregnancy in ages <20 y2 (117)3 (4)4 (28)9 (14)5 (3)<.0001
  • N/A, not applicable; —, P value was calculated for categorical variable.

  • a P value was calculated by using an analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables (except for teen pregnancy in which it was calculated by using Fisher’s exact test).

  • b Median was based on 4 items from the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity and Gender Role Questionnaire.

  • c Age at which sexual minority identification, same-sex attraction, or same-sex sexual contact first occurred, categorized as late adolescence and/or young adulthood (ages 18–27 y), middle adolescence (ages 14–17 y), or early adolescence (ages ≤13 y).

  • d Data collection among mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian participants only.

  • e Sexual orientation–related stress was assessed via questions about the extent to which participants wished they were not attracted to the same sex, with response options 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree); higher scores are used to indicate more stress.

  • f Mean of 3 items on outness to family, friends, and people at school or work.

  • g Mean of 3 items on frequency of LGB social activity involvement.