TABLE 2

Comparison of Infants With Meningitis Admitted From Home to Infants Diagnosed With Meningitis During Their Birth Hospitalization

Admitted From Home (n = 63)In Hospital Since Birth (n = 50)P
GA at birth, wk, n (%)<.001
 Term (≥37)54 (86)14 (28)
 Preterm (<37)9 (14)36 (72)
Birth weight (kg), median (IQR)3.2 (2.9–3.6)1.5 (1.0–3.1)<.001
Sex, n (%).71
 Female28 (44)24 (48)
 Male35 (55)26 (52)
Congenital anomaly7 (11)7 (14).64
Onset, d, n (%)<.001
 Early (0–6)3 (4.8)12 (24)
 Late (7–29)32 (51)32 (64)
 Extremely late (30–90)28 (44)6 (12)
Organism.029
E coli20 (31)17 (34)
 GBS23 (36)12 (24)
L monocytogenes3 (4.8)0
N meningitidis4 (6.3)0
H influenzae2 (3.1)1 (2.0)
S pneumoniae1 (1.6)0
 Other10 (16)a20 (40)b
Antimicrobial resistance
 AMPc15 (24)25 (50).004
 AMP+GEN2 (3.2)d6 (12)e.069
 CEF (third)6 (9.5)f13 (26)g.020
Outcome at last follow-uph
 Seizure disorder5 (8.5)5 (11).68
 Hearing loss2 (3.4)3 (6.5).46
 Vision problem1 (1.7)0.38
 Motor problem (spasticity, paresis)9 (15)10 (22).69
 Developmental delay5 (8.5)5 (11).87
 Death4 (6.3)4 (8.0).73
Duration of antibioticsh22 (16–37)24 (21–41).15
Length of hospitalizationh18 (12–25)60 (25–100)<.001
  • AMP, ampicillin; CEF (third), third-generation cephalosporin; GEN, gentamicin.

  • a Other bacteria from patients admitted from home include the following: Klebsiella spp. (n = 3), Streptococcus bovis (n = 2), S gallolyticus (n = 1), E cloacae (n = 1), C sakazakii (n = 1), P stutzeri (n =1), and S aureus (n = 1).

  • b Other bacteria from patients in hospital since birth include the following: E cloacae (n = 5), S marcescens (n = 3), Klebsiella spp. (n = 2), Bacillus spp. (n =2), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 2), S gallolyticus (n = 2), S anginosus (n = 1), viridians group Streptococcus (n = 1), Enterococcus spp. (n = 1), and C sakazakii (n = 1).

  • c Resistance to AMP includes the following: based on in vitro testing for E coli (n = 19), Klebsiella spp. (n = 4), and H influenza (n = 2); resistance assumed for E cloacae (n = 6), S marcescens (n = 3), C sakazakii (n = 2), and P stutzeri (n = 1), S aureus (n = 1), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 2).

  • d Resistance to both AMP and GEN (community isolates) was based on in vitro testing for E coli (n = 1) and resistance assumed for S aureus (n = 1).

  • e Resistance to both AMP and GEN (hospital isolates) was based on in vitro testing for E coli (n = 3) and GEN resistant S marcescens (n = 1); resistance was assumed for coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 2). Of note, all E cloacae and C sakazakii isolates were GEN susceptible or not tested.

  • f Resistance to CEF (third) (community isolates) includes the following: resistance assumed for L monocytogenes (n = 3), E cloacae (n = 1), C sakazakii (n = 1), and P stutzeri (n = 1).

  • g Resistance to CEF (third) (hospital isolates) includes the following: based on in vitro resistance testing for E coli (n = 1); resistance assumed for E cloacae (n = 5), S marcescens (n = 3), C sakazakii (n = 1), Enterococcus spp. (n = 1), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 2).

  • h Among survivors (n = 105).