TABLE 1

Characteristics of 113 Neonates With Proven or Suspected Bacterial Meningitis

Proven Casesa (n = 63)Suspected Cases (n = 50)All Cases (N = 113)P
GA at birth, wk, n (%).55
 ≥3738 (60)30 (60)68 (60)
 32–36+610 (16)4 (8.0)14 (12)
 28–31+67 (11)8 (16)15 (13)
 <288 (13)8 (16)16 (14)
Sex, n (%)1.0
 Female29 (46)23 (46)52 (46)
 Male34 (54)27 (54)61 (54)
Birth weight (kg), median (IQR)2.9 (1.1–3.4)2.9 (1.6–3.3)2.9 (1.4–3.3).49
Mode of delivery.80
 Vaginal44 (70)36 (72)80 (71)
 Cesarean delivery19 (30)14 (28)33 (29)
Congenital abnormality, n (%)7 (11)7 (14)14 (12).64
Onset, d.45
 Early (0–6)8 (13)7 (14)15 (13)
 Late (7–29)33 (52)31 (62)64 (56)
 Extremely late (30–90)22 (35)12 (24)34 (30)
Presentation, n (%).025
 From home41 (65)22 (44)63 (56)
 During birth hospitalization22 (35)28 (56)50 (44)
CSF findings (median, IQR)
 WBC × 106/L 1100 (350–3200)250 (140–660)620 (150–2600).011
 Percent neutrophils 75 (53–87)47 (8.5–82)71 (31–85).021
 Glucose, mmol/L 1.1 (0.70–2.4)2.1 (1.5–2.8)1.7 (0.78–2.6).002
 Protein, g/L 2.6 (1.6–4.9)1.9 (1.1–3.2)2.3 (1.2–4.2).057
Organism.022
E coli14 (22)23(46)37(33)
 GBS24 (38)11 (22)35 (31)
L monocytogenes3 (5)0 (0)3 (3)
Streptococcus pneumoniae1 (2)0 (0)1 (1)
 Hib0 (0)3 (6)3 (3)
N meningitidis4 (6)0 (0)4 (6)
 Other17 (27)b13 (26)c30 (27)
Treatment
 Antibiotic duration, d, median (IQR)23 (15–42)21 (19–31)22 (18–36).19
 Corticosteroids, n (%)3 (4.8)1 (2.0)4 (3.5).63
 Surgical drainage of abscess, n (%)2 (3.2)1 (2.0)3 (2.7)1.0
 CSF shunt, drain, or reservoir, n (%)13 (21)1 (2.0)14 (12).003
Complications
 Seizure27 (43)11 (22)38 (34).027
 Hydrocephalus17 (27)7 (14)24 (19).11
 Brain abscess6 (9.5)4 (8)10 (12)1.0
 Suspected ventriculitis4 (6.3)8 (16)12 (12).13
 Cerebral infarcts13 (21)9 (18)22 (11).81
Outcome at last encounter
 Seizure disorder8 (13)2 (4.0)10 (8.8).18
 Hearing loss3 (4.8)2 (4.0)5 (4.4)1.0
 Vision problem1 (1.6)0 (0)1 (0.9)1.0
 Motor problem (spasticity, paresis)12 (19)7 (14)19 (17).51
 Developmental delay11 (18)1 (2.0)12 (11).011
 Death2 (3.2)6 (12)8 (7.1).14
  • a A positive CSF culture.

  • b Other bacteria from cases of proven meningitis: S gallolyticus (n = 4), E cloacae (n = 2), C sakazakii (n = 2), K pneumoniae (n = 2), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 2), S aureus (n = 1), P stutzeri (n = 1), S marcescens (n = 1), K oxytoca (n = 1), Enterococcus spp. (n = 1).

  • c Other bacteria from cases of suspected meningitis: E cloacae (n = 4), S marcescens (n = 2), Bacillus spp. (n = 2), K oxytoca (n = 1), K pneumoniae (n = 1), S gallolyticus (n = 1), S anginosus (n = 1), viridans group streptococci (n = 1).