TABLE 3

The Details of Maternal Asthma and Other Factors in Included Studies

SourceMaternal AsthmaConfounders
Dehlink et al11Among nonallergic mothers (n = 551 234), maternal acid-suppressive drug use remained a risk factor, with an OR of 1.43 for developing childhood allergic disease (95% CI 1.28–1.59). Analysis of allergic mothers (n = 34 482) revealed that acid-suppressive drug use had no significant effect on the development of childhood allergic disease (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.84–1.87).Year of birth, parity, maternal age, maternal smoking, and maternal BMI
Andersen et al12Maternal asthma was more frequent among PPI-exposed children than among unexposed children.Year of birth, county, birth order, sex, gestational age, maternal age, maternal smoking, maternal asthma, delivery mode, and maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy
Mulder et al13The presence of allergic diseases in the mother was twice as high among those exposed during pregnancy than those who were unexposed, but adjustment of the crude HR (1.51 [95% CI 1.25–1.82]) for allergic disease in the mother showed little effect (adjusted HR 1.46 [95% CI 1.21–1.76]).Year of birth, sex of child, use of acid-suppressive drugs by child, maternal age at birth, maternal allergy, and maternal use of systemic antibiotics during pregnancy
Källén et al15Prescription of antiasthmatics during 2005–2011 did not identify all women with asthma during pregnancy. Among 11 300 women who had used antiasthmatics during pregnancy, 2527 (23%) were not identified as asthmatic on the basis of prescriptions during 2005–2011.Maternal age, year of birth, smoking, parity, BMI, and use of other drugs during pregnancy
Yitshak-Sade et al14The prevalence of maternal allergies did not differ substantially by exposure to H2Bs or PPIs. Mothers in the group exposed to H2Bs or PPIs were characterized by a higher proportion of asthma as compared with nonexposed mothers.Maternal allergy or asthma, maternal age, maternal use of antibiotics, infertility treatment, prenatal care, gestational age at birth, cesarean delivery, birth wt, child sex, year of birth, child use of acid-suppressive drugs at <2 y old, metoclopramide, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and insulin
Cea Soriano et al18One hundred seventy-one (19.3%) women were identified as asthmatic. The adjusted HR for preexisting maternal asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.21–2.00), and for those diagnosed during pregnancy, it was 0.99 (95% CI 0.76–1.28).Sex of child, maternal asthma, maternal comorbidities, maternal use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antacids, antibiotics or antihistamine medications during pregnancy, maternal primary care physician visits before and during pregnancy
Hak et al16The presence of maternal asthma was similar among those exposed during pregnancy and those not exposed to acid-suppressive drugs.Sex, maternal age at birth, birth order, and no. general practitioner visits during pregnancy. Paracetamol use, smoking status, presence of migraine, preeclampsia, or the prescription of paracetamol or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy
Mulder et al17Mothers without any asthma prescriptions before their own fifth birthday were selected.The age of the mother at birth, maternal asthma, sex of the child, sequence of birth, and use of acid-suppressive drugs by the child
  • H2B, H2 blockers.