TABLE 2

Characteristics of Prescription Opioid Exposures Among Children <20 Years of Age by Age Group, NPDS 2000–2015

Age Group, n (%)
Characteristics0–5 Years6–12 Years13–19 YearsTotal
Management site
 Managed on site (non-HCF)51 658 (45.9)12 731 (64.5)15 820 (28.1)80 209 (42.6)
 Patient was referred by PCC to an HCF32 283 (28.7)4104 (20.8)16 600 (29.5)52 987 (28.1)
 Patient already in (en route to) HCF when PCC called26 920 (23.9)2413 (12.2)22 458 (39.9)51 791 (27.5)
 Other721 (0.6)198 (1.0)611 (1.1)1530 (0.8)
 Unknown883 (0.8)277 (1.4)791 (1.4)1951 (1.0)
 Subtotal (row percentage)112 465 (59.7)19 723 (10.5)56 280 (29.9)188 468 (100.0)
Level of care received
 Admitted9824 (8.7)794 (4.0)12 091 (21.5)22 709 (12.0)
 Admitted to critical care unit4835 (4.3)325 (1.6)4014 (7.1)9174 (4.9)
 Admitted to non–critical care unit4975 (4.4)377 (1.9)3091 (5.5)8443 (4.5)
 Admitted to psychiatric care unit14 (0.0)92 (0.5)4986 (8.9)5092 (2.7)
 Treated/evaluated and released35 736 (31.8)2810 (14.2)13 992 (24.9)52 538 (27.9)
 Patient lost to follow-up/left AMA7898 (7.0)1672 (8.5)8224 (14.6)17 794 (9.4)
 Patient refused referral/did not arrive at HCF5746 (5.1)1241 (6.3)4751 (8.4)11 738 (6.2)
 No HCF treatment received53 261 (47.4)13 206 (67.0)17 222 (30.6)83 689 (44.4)
 Subtotal (row percentage)112 465 (59.7)19 723 (10.5)56 280 (29.9)188 468 (100.0)
Medical outcome
 Serious4932 (4.4)580 (2.9)6869 (12.2)12 381 (6.6)
 Moderate effect4092 (3.6)506 (2.6)5628 (10.0)10 226 (5.4)
 Major effect772 (0.7)63 (0.3)1145 (2.0)1980 (1.1)
 Death68 (0.1)11 (0.1)96 (0.2)175 (0.1)
 Minor effect13 957 (12.4)2917 (14.8)14 712 (26.1)31 586 (16.8)
 No effect52 145 (46.4)5020 (25.5)9649 (17.1)66 814 (35.5)
 Not followed/unable to follow41 431 (36.8)11 206 (56.8)25 050 (44.5)77 687 (41.2)
 Subtotal (row percentage)112 465 (59.7)19 723 (10.5)56 280 (29.9)188 468 (100.0)
Type of therapeutic errora
 Inadvertently took/given someone else’s medication4216 (27.9)3293 (30.6)1132 (13.7)8641 (25.3)
 Wrong medication taken/given3625 (24.0)2933 (27.3)1888 (22.8)8446 (24.7)
 Other incorrect dose2180 (14.4)1280 (11.9)1214 (14.6)4674 (13.7)
 Inadvertently took/given medication twice1203 (8.0)786 (7.3)974 (11.7)2963 (8.7)
 Confused units of measure916 (6.1)579 (5.4)429 (5.2)1924 (5.6)
 Medication doses given/taken too close together545 (3.6)366 (3.4)811 (9.8)1722 (5.1)
 Incorrect formulation or concentration given795 (5.3)429 (4.0)168 (2.0)1392 (4.1)
 Dispensing-cup error535 (3.5)366 (3.4)218 (2.6)1119 (3.3)
 Health professional/iatrogenic error: nurse/physician386 (2.6)254 (2.4)123 (1.5)763 (2.2)
 Incorrect formulation or concentration dispensed155 (1.0)113 (1.1)54 (0.7)322 (0.9)
 Exposure through breast milk160 (1.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)160 (0.5)
 Tenfold dosing error112 (0.7)28 (0.3)16 (0.2)156 (0.5)
 More than 1 product containing same ingredient50 (0.3)37 (0.3)48 (0.6)135 (0.4)
 Incorrect dosing route35 (0.2)15 (0.1)21 (0.3)71 (0.2)
 Drug interaction11 (0.1)5 (0.0)11 (0.1)27 (0.1)
 Other/unknown therapeutic error779 (5.2)505 (4.7)589 (7.1)1873 (5.5)
 Subtotal (row percentage)15 124 (44.3)10 749 (31.5)8292 (24.3)34 165 (100.0)
  • Column and row percentages may not sum to 100.0% due to rounding errors. AMA, against medical advice.

  • a Column percentages may sum to >100.0% because each exposure can involve >1 type of therapeutic error.