TABLE 1

Characteristics of Prescription Opioid Exposures Among Children <20 Years of Age by Age Group, NPDS 2000–2015

Age Group, n (%)
Characteristics0–5 Years6–12 Years13–19 YearsTotal
Sex
 Male59 770 (53.2)11 412 (57.9)24 804 (44.1)95 986 (50.9)
 Female52 193 (46.4)8267 (41.9)31 354 (55.7)91 814 (48.7)
 Unknown502 (0.5)44 (0.2)122 (0.2)668 (0.4)
Reason
 Unintentional-general96 134 (85.5)5905 (29.9)3759 (6.7)105 798 (56.1)
 Intentional201 (0.2)1988 (10.1)40 255 (71.5)42 444 (22.5)
 Intentional–suspected suicide46 (0.0)360 (1.8)19 239 (34.2)19 645 (10.4)
 Intentional-abuse40 (0.0)447 (2.3)11 721 (20.8)12 208 (6.5)
 Intentional-misuse86 (0.1)670 (3.4)6297 (11.2)7053 (3.7)
 Intentional-unknown29 (0.0)511 (2.6)2998 (5.3)3538 (1.9)
 Unintentional–therapeutic error15 124 (13.4)10 749 (54.5)8292 (14.7)34 165 (18.1)
 Other643 (0.6)560 (2.8)2633 (4.7)3836 (2.0)
 Unknown363 (0.3)521 (2.6)1341 (2.4)2225 (1.2)
Exposure site
 Residencea110 511 (98.3)19 022 (96.4)50 958 (90.5)180 491 (95.8)
 Otherb1445 (1.3)541 (2.7)3004 (5.3)4990 (2.6)
 Unknown509 (0.5)160 (0.8)2318 (4.1)2987 (1.6)
Type of opioid
 Hydrocodone29 088 (25.9)5447 (27.6)19 491 (34.6)54 026 (28.7)
 Oxycodone20 011 (17.8)3205 (16.3)9968 (17.7)33 184 (17.6)
 Codeine19 151 (17.0)5025 (25.5)6938 (12.3)31 114 (16.5)
 Tramadol12 403 (11.0)1778 (9.0)7115 (12.6)21 296 (11.3)
 Propoxyphene5799 (5.2)748 (3.8)3363 (6.0)9910 (5.3)
 Morphine3781 (3.4)576 (2.9)1928 (3.4)6285 (3.3)
 Methadone3466 (3.1)533 (2.7)2218 (3.9)6217 (3.3)
 Buprenorphine5078 (4.5)174 (0.9)509 (0.9)5761 (3.1)
 Meperidine422 (0.4)147 (0.7)236 (0.4)805 (0.4)
 Hydromorphone330 (0.3)75 (0.4)129 (0.2)534 (0.3)
 Fentanyl222 (0.2)28 (0.1)163 (0.3)413 (0.2)
 Oxymorphone183 (0.2)22 (0.1)132 (0.2)337 (0.2)
 Other12 531 (11.1)1965 (10.0)4090 (7.3)18 586 (9.9)
Chronicity
 Acute109 954 (97.8)18 424 (93.4)48 483 (86.1)176 861 (93.8)
 Acute-on-chronic1795 (1.6)978 (5.0)4066 (7.2)6839 (3.6)
 Chronic478 (0.4)223 (1.1)1454 (2.6)2155 (1.1)
 Unknown238 (0.2)98 (0.5)2277 (4.0)2613 (1.4)
Formulation
 Solid78 495 (69.8)11 204 (56.8)45 797 (81.4)135 496 (71.9)
 Liquid20 623 (18.3)6052 (30.7)3215 (5.7)29 890 (15.9)
 Other2297 (2.0)245 (1.2)1122 (2.0)3664 (1.9)
 Unknown11 050 (9.8)2222 (11.3)6146 (10.9)19 418 (10.3)
Total (row percentage)112 465 (59.7)19 723 (10.5)56 280 (29.9)188 468 (100.0)
  • Column and row percentages may not sum to 100.0% due to rounding errors.

  • a Residence includes own residence and other residence.

  • b Other includes HCF, public area, restaurant/food service, school, unknown, and workplace.