TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics by Maternal Prepregnancy BMI Status in Upstate KIDS (Primary Cohort)

AllNormal Weight, BMI <25.0Overweight, BMI 25.0–29.9Obese Class I, BMI 30.0–34.9Obese Class II/III, BMI ≥35.0
n (%)48212317 (48)1234 (26)639 (13)631 (13)
Maternal characteristics
 Prepregnancy BMI27.06 (6.83)21.85 (1.97)27.21 (1.40)32.26 (1.43)40.62 (5.01)
 Maternal age, ya30.46 (6.06)30.40 (6.11)30.93 (6.15)30.27 (5.92)29.94 (5.76)
 Paternal age, ya33.14 (6.84)33.12 (6.79)33.52 (7.05)32.49 (6.50)33.11 (6.90)
 Non-Hispanic white, n (%)3888 (81)1876 (81)985 (80)528 (83)499 (79)
 Maternal education,a n (%)
  Less than high school289 (6)143 (6)68 (6)45 (7)33 (5)
  High school or GED equivalent620 (13)268 (12)138 (11)88 (14)126 (20)
  Some college1463 (30)564 (24)385 (31)239 (37)275 (44)
  College1064 (22)567 (25)273 (22)119 (19)105 (17)
  Advanced degree1385 (29)775 (33)370 (30)148 (23)92 (14)
 Private insurance,a n (%)3617 (75)1779 (77)944 (77)468 (73)426 (68)
 Married/Living as married,a n (%)4079 (88)1989 (90)1042 (88)537 (88)511 (84)
 Previous live birth,a n (%)2612 (55)1137 (50)545 (44)259 (41)233 (37)
 Infertility treatment, n (%)1422 (30)682 (29)350 (28)190 (30)200 (32)
 Any alcohol during pregnancy,a n (%)586 (12)332 (14)142 (12)63 (10)49 (8)
 Smoked during pregnancy,a n (%)680 (14)297 (13)164 (13)97 (15)122 (19)
 Preexisting diabetes,a n (%)47 (1)5 (0.2)11 (1)11 (2)20 (3)
 Gestational diabetes,a n (%)459 (10)135 (6)120 (10)81 (13)123 (19)
 Gestational hypertension,a n (%)512 (11)145 (6)148 (12)78 (12)141 (22)
 Multivitamin use,a n (%)3224 (69)1591 (71)828 (69)410 (66)395 (64)
 Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid) use,a n (%)722 (15)400 (18)184 (15)66 (11)72 (12)
 Paternal BMIa28.24 (5.45)26.81 (4.40)28.36 (5.02)29.86 (6.00)31.56 (7.00)
  Normal/underweight, n (%)1176 (27)695 (34)278 (25)121 (21)82 (15)
  Overweight, n (%)1854 (43)982 (48)492 (44)191 (34)189 (33)
  Obesity (class I), n (%)811 (19)281 (13)235 (21)156 (28)139 (25)
  Obesity (class II/III), n (%)451 (11)97 (5)103 (10)97 (17)154 (27)
 Postpartum depression scorea2.69 (2.80)2.49 (2.69)2.72 (2.73)2.95 (3.00)3.13 (3.02)
 Postpartum depression,a n (%)983 (21)421 (19)245 (21)155 (25)162 (26)
 Breastfeeding at discharge,a n (%)3760 (79)1884 (82)974 (80)471 (74)431 (69)
Children’s characteristics
 Male infant, n (%)2494 (52)1181 (51)636 (52)340 (53)337 (53)
 Singleton, n (%)3759 (78)1829 (79)956 (77)498 (78)476 (75)
 Birth weight, ga3173 (695)3119 (664)3212 (708)3242 (682)3227 (777)
 Gestational age, wk38.04 (2.48)38.07 (2.44)38.06 (2.49)38.06 (2.47)37.84 (2.63)
 Small for gestational age, n (%)621 (14)330 (15)137 (12)72 (13)82 (15)
 GWG, kga32.3 (16.3)35.6 (13.8)33.8 (15.6)28.9 (16.5)21.0 (20.3)
  Excessive GWG, n (%)2105 (44)762 (33)713 (58)385 (60)245 (39)
  Adequate GWG, n (%)1661 (34)998 (43)362 (29)144 (23)157 (25)
  Inadequate GWG, n (%)1040 (22)548 (24)157 (13)109 (17)226 (36)
 Age at last ASQ, moa24.26 (13.11)25.01 (12.99)24.27 (13.08)22.86 (13.34)22.89 (13.15)
  • Values are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. Mean (SD) for continuous variables; n (%) for categorical. Missing data: paternal BMI (n = 529, 11%), multivitamin/fish oil use during pregnancy (n = 132, 3%), insurance status (n = 4), parity (n = 35, 0.7%), marital status (n = 203, 4.2%), drinking (n = 1), smoking (n = 1), postpartum depression (n = 170, 3.5%), breastfeeding at discharge (n = 52, 1%). GWG defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines27: Inadequate GWG is <12.5 kg for underweight women, <11.5 kg for normal-weight women, <7.0 kg for overweight women, and <5.0 kg for obese women (classes I and II) delivering singletons. Low GWG is <17.0 kg for underweight and normal-weight women, <14.0 kg for overweight women, and <11.0 kg for obese women (classes I and II) delivering twins. Adequate GWG is between 12.5 and 18.0 kg for underweight women, between 11.5 and 16.0 kg for normal-weight women, between 7.0 and 11.5 kg for overweight women, and between 5.0 and 9.0 kg for obese women (classes I and II) delivering singletons. Adequate GWG is between 17.0 and 25.0 kg for underweight and normal-weight women, between 14.0 and 23.0 kg for overweight women, and between 11.0 and 19.0 kg for obese women (classes I and II) delivering twins. Excessive GWG is >18.0 kg for underweight women, >16.0 kg for normal-weight women, >11.5 kg for overweight women, and >9.0 kg for obese women (classes I and II) delivering singletons. Excessive GWG is >25.0 kg for underweight and normal-weight women, >23.0 kg for overweight women, and >19.0 kg for obese women (classes I and II) delivering twins.

  • a P < .05 difference by analysis of variance or χ2.