TABLE 2

Overview of Outcomes

OutcomeUnitN of StudiesaN of ParticipantsaDifference Between Parallel and Crossover StudiesOverall Effect (Random Effects) M (95% CI)PHeterogeneity % (I2)
Immediate effects
 Physiologic
  HR1/min8 (2 P, 6 C)578 (90 P, 488 C)n.s.−2.99 (–6.08 to 0.11).05869
  RR1/min6 (1 P, 5 C)504 (27 P, 477 C)n.s.−3.91 (–7.8 to –0.03).048*79
  O2 SATPercent7 (1 P, 6 C)515 (27 P, 488 C)n.s.0.18 (–0.26 to 0.62).4310
 Behavioral
  Behavior stateSMD5 (1 P, 4 C)481 (40 P, 441 C)n.s.−0.32 (–0.89 to 0.25).27592
  Behavioral distressSMD2 (1 P, 1 C)62 (40 P, 22 C)***−1.47 (–3.32 to 0.38).12092
Short-term effects
 Infant
  Weight gaing/d3 (all P)166 (all P)3.34 (–3.14 to 9.82).31274
  Time to full oral feedsd2 (all P)138 (all P)−4 (-11.02 to 3.02).2640
 Parent
  Maternal anxietySMD3 (1 P, 2 C)151 (13 P, 138 C)*−1.82 (–2.42 to –1.22)<.001***69
 Service-level
  Postmenstrual age at discharged2 (all P)122 (all P)−2.5 (–13.89 to 8.9).66841
  Length of hospitalizationd5 (all P)354 (all P)−3.27 (–10.7 to 4.16)0.38829
  • C, crossover RCT; CI, 95% confidence interval; M, mean; n.s, not significant; P, parallel RCT; —, not applicable.

  • a Numbers analyzed.

  • *** P < .001.

  • * P < .05.