TABLE 3

Risk of Bias in Included Studies

Study IDStudy DesignCross-over Design Appropriate?Adequate Randomization of the Ordering of Treatments?Adequate Wash-out Period To Reduce Carry-over Effects?Adequate Sequence GenerationAllocation ConcealmentBlinding (Objective, Observed Outcomes)Blinding (Subjective, Self-Report Outcomes)Incomplete Outcome Data Addressed (Short-term Outcomes [2–6 wk])Incomplete Outcome Data Addressed (Short-term outcomes [>6 wk])Free of Selective ReportingFree of Other Bias
Arnon 2006Crossoveryesunclearyesn/aunclearunclearunclearyesn/ayesyes
Arnon 2014Crossoveryesyesyesn/ayesunclearnoyesn/ayesyes
Calabro 2003Paralleln/an/an/ayesunclearyesn/ayesn/ayesyes
Cassidy 2009Paralleln/an/an/aunclearunclearunclearn/ayesn/anoyes
Cevasco 2008Paralleln/an/an/aunclearunclearunclearnoyesn/anounclear
Chorna 2014Paralleln/an/an/aunclearunclearyesn/ayesn/ayesyes
Ettenberger 2014Paralleln/an/an/ayesyesunclearnoyesn/anoyes
Johnston 2007Crossoveryesyesyesn/aunclearyesn/ayesn/ayesno
Keith 2009Crossoveryesunclearyesn/aunclearnon/ayesn/anoyes
Loewy 2013Crossoveryesyesyesn/ayesyesn/ayesn/ayesyes
Schlez 2011Crossoveryesyesyesn/aunclearnonoyesn/ayesyes
Standley 2003Paralleln/an/an/aunclearunclearyesn/ayesn/ayesyes
Standley 2010Paralleln/an/an/aunclearyesyesn/ayesn/ayesno
Vianna 2011Paralleln/an/an/ayesyesyesn/ayesyesyesyes
Walworth 2012Paralleln/an/an/ayesunclearyesn/anon/ayesno
Whipple 2008Paralleln/an/an/aunclearunclearnon/ayesn/ayesyes
  • n/a, not applicable.