TABLE 3

Comparison of Child Outcomes Between Randomization Groups at Baseline and 1-Year Follow-up for Participants With Follow-up Assessments

OutcomeUnadjusted for Clustering or CovariatesAdjusted for Clustering, Covariates, and Baseline Score
Control, Mean (SD)aIntervention, Mean (SD)aPbCohen’s dbBaseline-corrected Cohen’s dcMean Difference (95% CI)dPdICC (Cluster)ICC (Center)
Receptive vocabularyBaseline7.61 (6.5)7.74 (6.7).830.02
Follow-up12.74 (8.8)14.76 (9.9).020.220.332.54 (1.10 to 3.97).001e0.010.01
Expressive vocabularyBaseline3.46 (4.1)4.31 (4.9).040.19
Follow-up7.45 (5.7)8.69 (6.6).030.200.150.68 (−0.45 to 1.82).240.040.04
Working memoryBaseline4.32 (4.0)4.19 (3.9).730.03
Follow-up7.16 (4.5)9.35 (5.8)<.001e0.420.462.20 (1.0 to 3.41)<.001e0.020.04
IQ (standard score)Baselinef90.76 (13.2)93.04 (13.9).090.17
Follow-up93.39 (13.8)98.89 (14.5)<.001e0.390.335.58 (2.98 to 8.17)<.001e00
Phonological short-term memoryBaseline1.65 (1.9)1.73 (1.9).640.04
Follow-up3.21 (2.5)3.42 (2.4).350.090.080.25 (−0.21 to 0.72).2900.02
Interactive readingBaseline12.83 (6.5)13.83 (6.9).110.15
Follow-up11.03 (5.2)14.41 (5.8)<.001e0.610.622.98 (1.91 to 4.10)<.001e00.01
Social-emotional competenceBaseline56.79 (9.1)57.80 (9.3).230.11
Follow-up58.98 (8.2)59.03 (8.2).950.010.05−0.40 (−1.72 to 0.34).5600
Externalizing behaviorBaseline19.99 (9.3)19.63 (9.4).670.04
Follow-up18.99 (9.9)17.57 (9.6).110.150.18−0.97 (−2.60 to 0.66).2400
 Attention problemsBaseline4.12 (2.4)4.02 (2.6).670.04
Follow-up4.06 (2.7)3.56 (2.5).040.190.22−0.56 (−1.13 to 0.01).05300.01
 Aggressive behaviorBaseline15.88 (7.8)15.61 (7.8).710.03
Follow-up14.94 (8.1)14.01 (8.0).210.120.13−0.75 (−2.08 to 0.57).2700
  • —, not applicable.

  • a Sample size ranges from 234 to 251 in the control arm and 214 to 232 in the intervention arm, depending on the measure.

  • b Based on t tests with no adjustment.

  • c Based on ANCOVA adjusting for baseline score only.

  • d Based on multilevel models adjusting for center, cluster, covariates (child’s age, sex, firstborn status, race [indigenous]; parent’s age, education level, marital status, family income, financial hardship, food insecurity, depression) and baseline score.

  • e Significant after Bonferroni correction.

  • f Includes only children 2.5 y or older, for whom standard scores could be calculated.