TABLE 1

Sample Characteristics at Baseline

Full Sample, n = 566Control Group, n = 287Intervention Group, n = 279Pa
Child characteristics
 Age, mean (SD), mo37.4 (6.5)37.6 (6.6)37.2 (6.6).47
 Female, %47.946.549.3.57
 First born child, %31.634.229.0.26
 Race, indigenous, %2.12.51.8.60
Parent characteristics
 Maternal respondents, %87.185.688.6.41
 Age <21 y, %10.813.87.7.06
 Married or living with a partner, %66.366.266.4.96
 Education level
  Less than middle school, %18.217.319.2.73
  Graduated middle school, %22.120.923.2.57
  Graduated high school, %41.143.039.1.49
  Attended college, %18.618.818.5.87
Monthly income, mean (SD), R$b1098.8 (660.7)1075.4 (600.2)1123.9 (720.2).48
 Income less than or equal to minimum wage, %51.354.547.8.23
Food insecurity, mean (SD)1.5 (1.3)1.5 (1.3)1.4 (1.3).27
Financial hardship, mean (SD)0.9 (1.0)1.0 (1.1)0.8 (1.0).07
Met criteria for depression, %34.037.530.4.09
  • Includes all participants contributing any data at the time of enrollment.

  • a P values are based on multilevel models.

  • b 1 R$ = ∼0.3 US$; at the time the study was conducted the minimum wage was ∼R$800 per month.