TABLE 2

Adjusted Estimates of Associations Between Sociodemographic and/or Obesity Risk Factors and BMI z Scores at Kindergarten Entry by Child Race and/or Ethnicity, Boys and Girls: ECLS-B

CharacteristicBoysGirls
African American, β (SEa)Hispanic, β (SE)Asian, β (SE)American Indian, β (SE)White, β (SE)African American, β (SEa)Hispanic, β (SE)Asian, β (SE)American Indian, β (SE)White, β (SE)
Age, mo.09 (0.03)b.07 (0.03)b.01 (0.03).00 (0.06).07 (0.02)c.03 (0.03).02 (0.03).14 (0.03)c.03 (0.05).03 (0.02)
Household SES, quintile
 First −.27 (0.25).37 (0.27).52 (0.26)b−.10 (0.43).14 (0.17).17 (0.22).34 (0.25).30 (0.29)−.45 (0.35)−.04 (0.17)
 Second −.19 (0.24).17 (0.27).78 (0.23)c−1.44 (0.39)c−.03 (0.13).17 (0.22).08 (0.25)−.68 (0.21)c.09 (0.36).17 (0.12)
 Third −.20 (0.24)−.03 (0.28).11 (0.18)−.75 (0.40).28 (0.11)b−.05 (0.21).14 (0.26)−.04 (0.22)−1.00 (0.36).11 (0.10)
 Fourth −.08 (0.26).19 (0.29).06 (0.16).08 (0.44).05 (0.10).28 (0.23).59 (0.27)b.07 (0.15)−.08 (0.35)−.15 (0.09)
 Fifth RefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
Household food insecurity.05 (0.16)−.27 (0.15)−.40 (0.22).15 (0.32).04 (0.14)−.30 (0.16).07 (0.18).58 (0.25)b.07 (0.17).23 (0.13)
Neighborhood safety.09 (0.14).20 (0.16).66 (0.36).71 (0.46)−.01 (0.21)−.05 (0.17).02 (0.21).09 (0.27)−.22 (0.39).43 (0.17)b
Maternal risk factors
 Wt, kg (SE).01 (0.00)c.02 (0.00)c.01 (0.00)b.00 (0.01).01 (0.00)c.01 (0.00)c.01 (0.00)d.00 (0.00).01 (0.00)c.01 (0.00)c
 Smoking during pregnancy.03 (0.27)−.03 (0.27).38 (0.67)−.12 (0.30)−.01 (0.12).06 (0.22).51 (0.39).37 (0.70)−.44 (0.23)b.01 (0.11)
Early life risk factors
 Never breastfed.04 (0.12)−.04 (0.13)−.46 (0.16)b−.28 (0.25).11 (0.09)−.04 (0.12).26 (0.14)−.14 (0.18).35 (0.18)b.17 (0.08)b
 Early introduction of solid foods.37 (0.13)c.19 (0.14).38 (0.22).47 (0.21)b.11 (0.09).12 (0.13)−.11 (0.18)−.07 (0.25).54 (0.20)b.10 (0.09)
 Wt gain2.70 (0.43)c2.11 (0.40)c1.31 (0.46)c.61 (0.86)2.11 (0.29)c2.13 (0.38)c1.73 (0.43)c2.44 (0.47)c2.28 (0.73)c1.23 (0.20)c
Early childhood risk factorsd
 Television viewing >2 h per d.00 (0.13).19 (0.12)−.12 (0.13).64 (0.25)b−.03 (0.08)−.08 (0.12)−.06 (0.12)−.12 (0.14).28 (0.19)−.11 (0.08)
 Physical inactivity.10 (0.12)−.22 (0.12)−.13 (0.17)−.21 (0.18)−.10 (0.07).17 (0.12)−.13 (0.12).01 (0.13)−.13 (0.15)−.11 (0.07)
 SSB consumption.01 (0.12).02 (0.12).16 (0.15)−.52 (0.24)b.08 (0.09).18 (0.12).02 (0.13).09 (0.17)−.45 (0.17)b−.12 (0.08)
 Nonparental child care.26 (0.13).01 (0.14).13 (0.17)−.08 (0.30).03 (0.10).33 (0.17)b.24 (0.13)−.16 (0.19).21 (0.23).11 (0.09)
 Fruit and vegetable consumption.05 (0.13)−.10 (0.14).11 (0.16).19 (0.23)−.09 (0.09).02 (0.16)−.34 (0.16).14 (0.15)−.48 (0.24)b−.20 (0.09)b
 Family meals <4 per wk−.03 (0.13).01 (0.14).70 (0.17)c.40 (0.39)−.01 (0.11)−.27 (0.13)b.37 (0.16)b−.19 (0.17).00 (0.20).02 (0.11)
  • a SE.

  • b Significant at P ≤ .05.

  • c Significant at P ≤ .01.

  • d Measured at wave 3 of data collection (approximately age 36 mo).