TABLE 3

Age at Menarche and Depressive Symptoms in Adulthood

Proximal Influences ModelLingering Influences ModelIncreasing Influences Model
bSE95% CIbSE95% CIbSE95% CI
LowerUpperLowerUpperLowerUpper
Intercept9.41*2.76*3.95*14.86*11.92*2.44*7.09*16.76*9.40*2.43*4.58*14.22*
Menarche−0.87*0.43*−1.73*−0.02*−0.84*0.38*−1.59*−0.10*−0.610.37−1.350.13
Age at Wave I0.24*0.04*0.16*0.32*−0.020.04−1.000.05−0.09*0.04*−0.16*−0.02*
Menarche, quadratic effect0.030.020.000.070.03*0.02*0.0020.06*0.020.01−0.010.05
Depression at Wave I0.27*0.02*0.24*0.30*
Maternal education level
 High school graduate−0.88*0.28*−1.44*−0.32*−0.60*0.25*−1.10*−0.10*−0.370.25−0.850.12
 College graduate−1.36*0.28*−1.93*−0.79*−1.12*0.27*−1.66*−0.57*−0.75*0.26*−1.27*−0.23*
Father presence
 Absent since birth0.53*0.24*0.06*1.01*0.380.22−0.060.810.230.22−0.200.66
 Father left 0–5 y0.62*0.23*0.17*1.07*0.71*0.27*0.18*1.24*0.54*0.26*0.03*1.06*
 Father left 6–13 y0.510.27−0.021.040.410.27−0.140.960.280.27−0.260.81
Race and/or ethnicity
 African American0.510.32−0.121.140.280.26−0.220.790.150.22−0.290.58
 Hispanic0.390.23−0.070.850.46*0.23*0.01*0.91*0.360.22−0.070.79
 Other race0.590.40−0.191.380.66*0.28*0.10*1.22*0.50*0.25*0.001*1.00*
 Family income-to-needs ratio−0.06*0.02*−0.10*−0.01*−0.040.02−0.090.00−0.030.02−0.070.02
 AFDC receipt0.74*0.28*0.18*1.31*1.06*0.29*0.49*1.64*0.86*0.28*0.30*1.43*
  • Analyses were conducted in Stata’s design-based weighting program to account for the clustered nature of the sample; this program does not provide R2 values. The proximal influences model uses CES-D scores at Wave I as the dependent variable; the lingering influences and increasing influences models use CES-D scores at Wave IV as the dependent variables. AFDC, Aid to Families with Dependent Children; CI, confidence interval; —, not applicable.

  • * P < .05.