TABLE 2

Comparison of Parenting Outcomes Between Randomization Groups at Baseline and 1-Year Follow-up for Participants With Follow-up Assessments

OutcomeUnadjusted for Clustering or CovariatesAdjusted for Clustering, Covariates, and Baseline Score
Control, Mean (SD)aIntervention, Mean (SD)aPbCohen’s dbBaseline-Corrected Cohen’s dcMean Difference (95% CI)dPdICC (Cluster)ICC (Center)
StimQ totalBaseline20.76 (7.4)21.04 (7.7).700.03
Follow-up23.04 (7.5)25.76 (6.7)<.001e0.380.432.77 (0.21 to 5.34).030.0970.097
 StimQ READBaseline5.01 (3.9)5.23 (4.1).560.05
Follow-up6.10 (4.0)8.12 (3.6)<.001e0.530.521.84 (0.76 to 2.92)<.001e0.020.06
 StimQ PVRBaseline8.59 (3.0)8.60 (2.9).980.00
Follow-up8.89 (3.1)9.55 (2.8).010.220.290.67 (−0.20 to 1.53).130.060.06
 StimQ PIDABaseline7.20 (2.3)7.23 (2.5).890.01
Follow-up8.06 (2.0)8.22 (2.0).380.080.090.22 (−0.41 to 0.83).500.060.06
Interactive reading (ACIRI)Baseline14.10 (6.4)14.98 (6.6).140.14
Follow-up11.78 (5.2)14.72 (5.5)<.001e0.550.572.80 (1.40 to 4.19)<.001e0.030.03
Physical punishmentBaseline4.30 (1.5)4.37 (1.6).610.05
Follow-up4.33 (1.5)4.07 (1.5).060.170.22−0.33 (−0.65 to 0.53).0400.02
  • ACIRI, adult/child interactive reading inventory; PIDA, parental involvement in developmental advancement; PVR, parental verbal responsivity. —, not applicable.

  • a Sample size ranges from 234 to 249 in the control arm and 214 to 229 in the intervention arm, depending on the measure.

  • b Based on t tests with no adjustment.

  • c Based on ANCOVA adjusting for baseline score only.

  • d Based on multilevel models adjusting for center, cluster, covariates (child’s age, sex, firstborn status, race [indigenous]; parent’s age, education level, marital status, family income, financial hardship, food insecurity, depression) and baseline score.

  • e Significant after Bonferroni correction.