Sample Characteristics

M or %SD
Depression, Wave I6.374.61
Depression, Wave IV5.694.36
Antisocial behavior, Wave I2.843.64
Antisocial behavior, Wave IV0.190.89
Age at Wave I, y15.361.74
Age at Wave 4, y28.451.77
Income-to-needs ratio2.963.57
Maternal education
 Less than HS0.18
 HS diploma or GED0.24
 Mother has college degree0.16
Father absence
 Always absent0.14
 Absent 0–5 y0.12
 Absent 6–13 y0.11
 Always present, 0–13 y0.63
Race and/or ethnicity
 European American0.66
 African American0.12
 Other race and /or ethnicity0.06
AFDC receipt0.08
  • All means and percentages are drawn from the final imputed data set and weighted by using Add Health Wave IV survey weights. Numbers that indicate means include SDs as well; numbers that indicate percentages do not. AFDC indicates the participant’s family received public assistance benefits in Wave I. Depression refers to summed CES-D short-form scores. Scores of 8 to 10 have been suggested as a clinical cutoff. Antisocial behaviors refer to the summed frequency of antisocial behaviors. AFDC, Aid to Families with Dependent Children; GED, graduate equivalency diploma; HS, high school; —, not applicable.