TABLE 3

Infant Neuromotor Development and Externalizing Scores Across Childhood Within Generation R Study

Nonoptimal Neuromotor DevelopmentExternalizing Scores
Mother Reporta (1.5, 3, 6, and 10 y)Father Reportb (3 and 10 y)
Nβ (95% CI)PNβ (95% CI)P
Overall neuromotor development
 Unadjusted3402.02 (−0.03 to 0.08).3813023.04 (−0.04 to 0.11).353
 Adjusted3402−.01 (−0.07 to 0.04).6173023.03 (−0.05 to 0.10).520
Muscle tone
 Unadjusted3321.01 (−0.05 to 0.06).8322954.01 (−0.08 to 0.10).704
 Adjusted3321−.02 (−0.08 to 0.03).4662954.02 (−0.06 to 0.09).737
Low tone symptoms
 Unadjusted3327c2959.04 (−0.04 to 0.12).386
 Adjusted3327c2959.03 (−0.05 to 0.11).446
High tone symptoms
 Unadjusted3441.04 (−0.01 to 0.10).1363056.02 (−0.10 to 0.15).764
 Adjusted3441.01 (−0.06 to 0.09).6863056−.02 (−0.12 to 0.09).765
Responses
 Unadjusted3267.01 (−0.04 to 0.07).6922901.04 (−0.03 to 0.12).276
 Adjusted3267−.01 (−0.06 to 0.05).7852901.04 (−0.03 to 0.11).299
Senses
 Unadjusted senses3452.03 (−0.02 to 0.09).2423068.03 (−0.05 to 0.11).445
 Adjusted senses3452−.02 (−0.07 to 0.04).5563068.01 (−0.07 to 0.08).807
  • The association between nonoptimal neuromotor development and externalizing through age 10 y were estimated with GLMMs to account for repeatedly assessed outcome. All models adjusted for a child’s age, sex and ethnicity, gestational age at birth, antenatal maternal psychiatric symptoms, household income, maternal history of smoking in pregnancy, and the version of neuromotor instrument. —, not applicable.

  • a In addition, all models are adjusted for age of the mother and education level of the mother.

  • b In addition, all models are adjusted for age of the father and educational level of the father.

  • c Because of the interaction effect of low muscle tone with age, results cannot be presented here. See Fig 2.