TABLE 2

Summary and Description of General Behavioral Development Interventions (n = 8)

InterventionBrief DescriptionFocusDelivery
IYGroup sessions (8–12 parents, group discussions after video vignettes, modeling, role play, and parent homework)Nurture parenting through play, praise, rewards, limit setting, managing misbehavior6–10 weekly group sessions, 2 h
Delivered by: clinical psychologist and 1 pediatric staff (RN, MD, LCSW, NP)
Primary care: delivered at primary care clinics or public health centers
Triple PLevel 1: universal parent information strategy that provides all interested parents with access to useful information via pamphlets and electronic media(1) enhance parental knowledge and resourcefulness; (2) promote nurturing, low-conflict environments for children; (3) promote children’s social, emotional, and intellectual competencies through positive parenting practicesDelivered by: child development specialist, psychologist, or physician
Level 2: 2 sessions in clinic, early anticipatory developmental guidance, video, and pamphletsPrimary care: delivered in primary care clinics or health centers
Level 3: 4 sessions in clinic, 30 min, for children with mild to moderate behavioral difficulties
Level 4: 8–10 sessions, 2 h, individual, group, or self-directed parent training program for children with more severe behavioral difficulties
Level 5: 12 sessions, 1–2 h, enhanced behavioral family intervention program when behavior is complicated by other sources of family distress
PCITCompared group sessions (2–4 dyads) and homework reinforcing skills versus providing the same information in written packetsPraise for positive behavior and not giving any attention to negative behavior4 weekly group sessions, 1.5 h
Delivered by: PCIT-trained therapist and the children with research assistant
Primary care: delivered in primary care clinic waiting room after hours
Universal parenting program/toddlers without tearsIndividual sessions with health care provider, handouts describing normal child developmentEducation regarding unreasonable expectations, harsh discipline, and nurturing parenting3 sessions, 2 h
Delivered by: health care provider and a parenting expert
Primary care: delivered by physician separate from usual clinic visits
Webster-StrattonGroup sessions (10 parents per group), videos, group discussion, role play, homeworkImprovement of parent-child interactions, limit setting, ignoring undesired behavior, praise, reward, follow through on discipline plans10 weekly group sessions, 2 h
Delivered by: trained health visitors or nurses
Primary care: delivered at health centers
Family FoundationsGroup psycho-educational sessions (5 prenatal, 4 postnatal, 8–12 couples per group)Coparental conflict resolution, problem solving, and communication9 group sessions, 2–3 h
Delivered by: trained male and female facilitators
Primary care: delivered at health center
ezParentModules on an android tablet, adapted from the Chicago parent program group sessions, includes video vignettes, knowledge questions, and interactive gamesEvidence-based strategies to encourage good behavior and decrease misbehavior in children aged 2–5 y6 modules, 1 h
Delivered by: electronic device
Primary care: delivered in large urban primary care pediatric clinic
PriCAREWeekly group sessions (6–8 parents), includes role-play and homeworkTrauma-informed positive parenting, prosocial behaviors, giving effective commands. Informed by attachment and social learning theories and based in PCIT techniques6 weekly group sessions, 1.5 h
Delivered by: 2 licensed mental health professionals
Primary care: delivered in conference room at primary care clinic
  • LCSW, Licensed Clinical Social Worker; MD, Doctor of Medicine; NP, Nurse practitioner; RN, registered nurse.