TABLE 2

Infant Neuromotor Development and Internalizing Scores Across Childhood Within the Generation R Study

Nonoptimal Neuromotor DevelopmentInternalizing Scores
Mother Reporta (1.5, 3, 6, and 10 y)Father Reportb (3 and 10 y)
Nβ (95% CI)PNβ (95% CI)P
Overall neuromotor development
 Unadjusted3402.12 (0.06 to 0.18)<.0013023.11 (0.03 to 0.19).009
 Adjusted3402.08 (0.02 to 0.14).0083023.10 (0.02 to 0.18).022
Muscle tone
 Unadjusted3321.09 (0.03 to 0.15).0032954.09 (0.01 to 0.17).031
 Adjusted3321.07 (0.01 to 0.13).0282954.09 (0.00 to 0.16).041
Low tone symptoms
 Unadjusted3327.13 (0.07 to 0.20)<.0012959.14 (0.05 to 0.22).003
 Adjusted3327.11 (0.05 to 0.18)<.0012959.13 (0.04 to 0.22).004
High tone symptoms
 Unadjusted3441.06 (0.00 to 0.12).0483056.09 (−0.01 to 0.20).091
 Adjusted3441.06 (−0.02 to 0.14).1143056.07 (−0.04 to 0.18).211
Responses
 Unadjusted3267.03 (−0.03 to 0.09).2712901.05 (−0.03 to 0.14).195
 Adjusted3267.00 (−0.06 to 0.06).9232901.05 (−0.03 to 0.13).258
Senses
 Unadjusted senses3452.12 (0.06 to 0.18)<.0013068.13 (0.04 to 0.22).003
 Adjusted senses3452.06 (0.00 to 0.12).0403068.10 (0.02 to 0.19).019
  • The association between nonoptimal neuromotor development and internalizing through age 10 y were estimated with GLMMs to account for repeatedly assessed outcome. All models adjusted for a child’s age, sex and ethnicity, gestational age at birth, antenatal maternal psychiatric symptoms, household income, maternal history of smoking in pregnancy, and the version of neuromotor instrument.

  • a In addition, all models are adjusted for age of the mother and education level of the mother.

  • b In addition, all models are adjusted for age of the father and educational level of the father.