TABLE 2

Feeding Characteristics of Children Aged 60 Months With CP in the Longitudinal OPD Study by GMFCS (n = 135)

Overall, n (%)GMFCS I, n (%): n = 60GMFCS II, n (%): n = 29GMFCS III, n (%): n = 18GMFCS IV, n (%): n = 11GMFCS V, n (%): n = 17Crude OR (95% CI); PAdjusted OR (95% CI); P
OPD classification overall78 (57.8)19 (31.7)18 (62.1)a15 (83.3)a9 (81.8)a17 (100.0)a3.0 (1.9 to 4.6); <.0013.3 (1.7 to 6.3); <.001
 DDS (modified)58 (43.0)8 (13.3)12 (41.4)a12 (66.7)a9 (81.8)a17 (100.0)a3.7 (2.4 to 5.7); <.0014.4 (2.2 to 8.8); <.001
 Pharyngeal phase signs41 (30.4)2 (3.3)7 (24.1)a6 (33.3)a9 (81.8)a17 (100.0)a4.8 (2.9 to 7.9); <.0019.0 (3.3 to 25.0); <.001
 Parent report58 (45.0)13 (22.8)9 (34.6)12 (66.6)a7 (63.6)a17 (100.0)a2.5 (1.8 to 3.6); <.0012.2 (1.4 to 3.5); .001
OPD severity, mean (95% CI)4.3 (3.1 to 5.5)0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)1.8 (0.8 to 2.7)4.4 (2.2 to 6.6)a8.3 (4.4 to 12.2)a20.2 (19.0 to 21.4)aβ = 4.0 (3.7 to 4.3); <.001β = 3.9 (3.3 to 4.5); <.001
OPD trajectory (on DDS)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8); .0101.3 (0.9 to 1.8); .233
 Unchanged (no OPD)41 (43.2)30 (69.8)5 (41.7)4 (21.1)1 (16.7)0 (0.0)
 Unchanged (OPD)33 (34.7)3 (7.0)2 (16.7)9 (47.4)5 (83.3)15 (100.0)
 Improved12 (12.6)8 (18.6)2 (16.7)2 (10.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Declined3 (3.2)0 (0.0)1 (8.3)2 (10.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Fluctuated6 (6.3)2 (4.7)2 (16.7)2 (10.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
EDACS6.1 (4.0 to 9.2); <.0018.2 (4.2 to 15.7); <.001
 I79 (58.5)55 (91.7)16 (55.2)6 (33.3)2 (18.2)0 (0.0)
 II25 (18.5)3 (5.0)12 (41.4)7 (38.9)3 (27.3)0 (0.0)
 III12 (8.9)2 (3.3)0 (0.0)5 (27.8)3 (27.3)2 (11.8)
 IV7 (5.2)0 (0.0)1 (3.4)0 (0.0)3 (27.3)3 (17.7)
 V12 (8.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)12 (70.5)
Support for feeding8.8 (4.8 to 16.2); <.0019.6 (4.0 to 22.9); <.001
 Independent97 (71.9)57 (95.0)28 (96.6)10 (55.6)2 (18.2)0 (0.0)
 Partial19 (14.1)3 (5.0)1 (3.4)7 (38.9)8 (72.3)0 (0.0)
 Total19 (14.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (5.6)1 (9.1)17 (100.0)
Textures included
 Purees114 (89.1)53 (94.6)25 (96.2)17 (94.4)11 (100.0)a8 (47.1)a0.5 (0.3 to 0.7); <.0010.5 (0.4 to 0.7); <.001
 Semisolids112 (87.5)55 (98.2)25 (96.2)17 (94.4)9 (81.8)a6 (35.3)a0.3 (0.2 to 0.5); <.0010.4 (0.3 to 0.5); <.001
 Chewables113 (88.3)56 (100.0)26 (100.0)18 (100.0)10 (90.9)3 (17.7)a0.0 (0.0 to 0.2); <.0010.1 (0.0 to 0.2); <.001
 Tough chewables100 (78.1)52 (92.9)23 (88.5)16 (88.9)8 (72.7)1 (5.9)a0.4 (0.4 to 0.5); <.0010.4 (0.3 to 0.6); <.001
 Thin fluids114 (89.1)56 (100.0)26 (100.0)17 (94.4)11 (100.0)4 (23.5)a0.1 (0.0 to 0.3); <.0010.1 (0.0 to 0.2); <.001
 Thick fluids4 (3.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (5.6)0 (0.0)3 (42.9)5.7 (1.5 to 21.8); .01118.4 (0.9 to 393.2); .062
Feeding method (n = 128)3.2 (2.6 to 3.9); <.0013.8 (0.6 to 22.8); <.001
 Full oral112 (87.5)57 (100.0)25 (100.0)15 (83.3)11 (100.0)4 (23.5)
 Partial tube9 (7.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3 (16.7)0 (0.0)9 (52.9)
 Full tube7 (5.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)7 (41.2)
Challenging behaviors (16), mean (95% CI)4.1 (3.3 to 4.9)3.8 (2.7 to 4.9)3.7 (2.1 to 5.4)3.6 (1.4 to 5.8)6.4 (3.1 to 9.6)a4.7 (1.7 to 7.7)β = .2 (−0.1 to 0.6); .141β = .3 (−0.2 to 0.7); .219
Parent stress, mean (95% CI)1.6 (1.3 to 1.8)1.6 (1.4 to 1.8)1.5 (0.6 to 2.4)1.6 (1.2 to 2.0)2.2 (1.5 to 2.9)a0.9 (0.0 to 2.3)a1.1 (1.0 to 1.3); .0880.9 (0.6 to 1.3); .458
Parent worry about growth, mean (95% CI)1.7 (1.4 to 1.9)1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)1.5 (0.6 to 2.4)1.7 (1.2 to 2.1)2.0 (1.5 to 2.4)a1.8 (1.3 to 2.2)a1.2 (1.1 to 1.4); .2241.1 (0.8 to 1.5); .681
  • Parent stress was significantly associated with number of challenging behaviors (adjusted β = 3.0 [95% CI 2.6 to 3.3], P < .001); adjusted for age, sex, preterm status, and epilepsy. Trajectory data include only children with full longitudinal data (3 data points), n = 95. —, not applicable or not available.

  • a Indicates individual GMFCS levels that are significantly different compared with GMFCS I.