TABLE 1

Summary and Description of General Developmental Support Interventions (n = 9)

InterventionBrief DescriptionFocusDelivery
VIPVideotaping and coviewing parent-child interaction followed by discussion, developmentally age appropriate toy, and written materialDiscussion of developmental concerns, review of video to identify strengths and potential areas of improvement, provide age-appropriate learning material12 sessions, 30–45 min
Delivered by: child development specialist
Primary care
Cost: $150–240 per child per year
Primary care: delivered in the primary care clinic during well-child visits
BBAge-specific newsletter mailed once per mo with developmentally age-appropriate toy and parent-completed developmental questionnairesSupport of verbal interactions in the context of pretend play, shared reading, and daily routinesDelivered by: not applicable, materials only
Cost: $75 per child per year
Primary care: materials sent to patients by the primary care clinic and contacted family if questionnaires suggested possible delay
HSMeeting with developmental specialist, phone lines for questions; written material, parenting groupsDevelopmental, behavioral, and psychosocial aspects of care9 enhanced well-child visits and 6 home visits in the first 3 y
Delivered by: child development specialist
Cost: $400–$933 per child
Primary care: delivered in the primary care clinic during well-child visits
HS + PPMeeting with developmental specialist, phone support, and screening for risk factors (smoking, depression, domestic violence)Education and preparation for changes in pregnancy and newborn period, identify risk in pregnant mothers3 home visits during pregnancy and HS
Delivered by: child development specialist
Primary care: HS components delivered in the primary care clinic during well-child visits
CFDStructured interview and counseling during an acute health visit and 1 wk follow-up visit15Enhancement of caregiver-child interactions and home environment in resource-limited settings, introducing forms of play, communication, homemade toys, and reading aloud2 sessions, 30 min15
Discussion based on counseling guidelines, modeling, practice with feedback, and written material162 sessions, 30–60 min16
Delivered by: physician or other health professional
Primary care: delivered in clinics or by health professionals
TouchpointsSessions with a parent coach, phone support, Ages and Stages Questionnaire activity-based system, video vignettes, and modeling child interactionsStrengthening of parent-health provider relationship, educate about nonharsh parent-child interactions, and increase use of community resourcesClinic and home visits from birth to 18 mo
Delivered by: “parent coach” (bilingual college-educated in child development)
Primary care: mentoring by social worker and nurse from the primary care office
POCGroup sessions (15 dyads per group), home visits, and in-depth interviews for parents of children aged 0–4 yStrengthening positive caregiver-child interaction in learning activities and play; promote comprehensive socioemotional, motor, language, and cognitive development; enhance parenting skills and knowledge; and foster networks among caregiversWeekly group sessions, 2.5 h
Delivered by: “community monitors” with support from physicians, psychologists, and teachers
Primary care: sessions held in health center, support from physicians, psychologists
Parenting interventionShown short videos (9 modules, 3 min each), discussed and encouraged mother to practice activity shown in video (∼16 min), health provider reinforced messages, gave written materials, a book, and a puzzleIllustration of mothers doing parenting behaviors considered central to promoting child development5 brief sessions in waiting rooms
Delivered by: community health worker and nurse
Primary care: delivered in the primary care clinic during routine health maintenance visits
SDPModeling for parents how a toy can facilitate talking or playing with their child. Parents observed and feedback provided on their interaction introducing the new toy.Informed by social cognitive theory, promoting observational learning, resources to engage in behaviors, and concrete strategies in addition to knowledge provision8 sessions from 2–24 mo of age, 10–15 min in waiting room
Delivered by: existing clinical staff, nonprofessionals, or volunteers
Primary care: delivered in the primary care clinic waiting room