TABLE 3

Crude Rates or Means and Relative Risks or Means for Birth Outcomes and Neonatal Readmission for Exposed (Received HBPB) and Unexposed (Did Not Receive HBPB) Groups

OutcomeCrude Rates, %Risk Ratio95% CIPSensitivity to Unmeasured Confoundinga
HBPBNo HBPB
Breastfeeding initiation64.258.91.061.03–1.09<.000156.4
Low birth weight (<2500 g)5.17.80.710.63–0.81<.000161.8
Preterm (<37 wk gestation)8.211.30.760.69–0.84<.000162.9
Small for gestational age8.39.60.900.81–0.99.051.8
Large for gestational age16.113.91.131.05–1.23.00138.8
Low 5-min Apgar score3.74.00.930.79–1.09.36NS
Neonatal readmission (<29 d)2.72.71.020.84–1.25.82NS
Unweighted MeansWeighted Mean (95% CI)
Birth hospital LOSHBPBNo HBPBHBPBNo HBPB
Births by cesarean delivery7.17.67.13 (6.78–7.48)7.17 (6.79–7.55).87
Vaginal births2.93.12.86 (2.79–2.92)3.11 (3.03–3.20)<.0001
  • a Analyzed by using γ sensitivity test; γ sensitivity analysis was not calculated for those findings that were not statistically significant (NS).