TABLE 2

Characteristics of Women on Welfare During Pregnancy According to Receipt of HBPB

CharacteristicBefore IPTW AppliedAfter IPTW Applied: Standardized Differences
Received HBPBDid Not Receive HBPBPStandardized Differences
Categorical variables
 Received screen prenatallya1074 (10.0)192 (5.0)<.00119.150.14
 Alcohol use during pregnancy2378 (22.2)789 (20.5).034.071.07
 Drug use during pregnancy1446 (13.5)456 (11.8).014.910.37
 Family history of disability375 (3.5)136 (3.5).910.200.69
 Smoked during pregnancy4954 (46.1)1783 (46.3).880.280.11
 Mother did not complete high school4932 (45.9)1628 (42.3)<.0017.410.61
 Received welfare6863 (63.9)2001 (51.9)<.00124.450.41
 Single-parent family4722 (44.0)1376 (35.7)<.00116.940.75
 No prenatal care before 6 mo626 (5.8)430 (11.2)<.00119.210.14
 Mother has depression2110 (19.7)602 (15.6)<.00110.580.31
 Mother has anxiety disorder719 (6.7)196 (5.1)<.0016.841.17
 Mother has schizophrenia130 (1.2)38 (1.0).242.150.36
 Mother has a mental disability136 (1.3)45 (1.2).630.900.51
 Antisocial father402 (3.7)95 (2.5)<.0017.370.93
 Antisocial mother182 (1.7)55 (1.4).242.160.27
 Current substance abuse by mother283 (2.6)100 (2.6).890.250.22
 Social isolation692 (6.4)248 (6.4).990.030.19
 Relationship distress1631 (15.2)472 (12.3)<.0018.550.46
 Violence between parents769 (7.2)211 (5.5)<.0016.930.27
 Mother abused as a child1686 (15.7)504 (13.1)<.0017.470.52
 Maternal diabetes268 (2.5)62 (1.6)<.0016.260.80
Continuous variables
 Mother's age at first birth4.211.00
 Count10 7383853
 Mean19.819.6
 Median19.119.0
 SD3.43.5
 Minimum12.012.2
 Maximum42.743.7
Area-level SES index (higher value = low SES)13.400.70
 Count10 7293849
 Mean0.90.8
 Median0.80.7
 SD0.90.9
 Minimum−2.9−2.9
 Maximum3.93.9
  • Data are presented as n (%) or %. SES, socioeconomic status.

  • a Screens are generally completed postnatally, and prenatal screens are indicative of higher risk families.