TABLE 6

Specific Developmental Topic Interventions: Results and Levels of Evidence

Intervention, ReferenceStudy DesignSample Size, Location, AgeAge, Specific PopulationLevels of EvidenceEffect
Child OutcomesParent Outcomes
Family-centered treatment, Salisbury et al55RCTN = 62, United States4–8 wk1Decreased child crying (h/d) at 6 wk and time spent feeding at 6 and 10 wk postinterventionNo difference in maternal depressive symptoms (BDI) or stress (PSI) at 6 or 10 wk postintervention
Infants with colic, mostly white
No difference in total h of sleep per d
BBP, Hiscock et al56RCTN = 770, Melbourne, Australia4–13 wk1Decreased crying severity at 4 mo of age and fewer changed formula at 6 mo of age. No difference in sleep problems or durationDecreased maternal doubt at 4 mo of age, and depressive symptoms at 6 mo of age
High income families
No difference in sleep quality, maternal anger, safety, or limit setting
THB, McRury and Zolotor57RCTN = 35, Columbus, OHNewborn middle to high income families1No difference in crying (h/d) or sleep (h/d) at 6 or 12 wk of ageGreater parental stress (PSI) in the intervention group at 12 wk of age
Infant massage, Sheidaei et al58RCTN = 100 Iran<12 wk1Decrease severity of colic (VAS), duration of crying (min/d), and increased duration of sleep (min/d) 1 wk postinterventionNone reported
Literacy promoting intervention, High et al59RCTN = 205, United States5–11 mo low income, multiethnic families1Increased receptive vocabulary in children 13–17 mo of age, expressive vocabulary in children 18–25 mo of age (MCDI-SF)Increased frequency of reading at bedtime (d/wk) at mean age of 18 mo
ROR, Silverstein et al60Pre/post quality improvementN = 173, Seattle, WA5.5 mo–6 y4Greater report of reading as favorite activity immediately after interventionGreater report of reading aloud as favorite activity, >10 children’s books in home, and reading aloud at least once per wk immediately postintervention
Greatest effect for non-English speakers
ROR, Needlman et al6Quasi-experimental historical controlsN = 1647, 10 states in United States6–72 mo4None reportedGreater report of reading aloud as favorite activity, >10 children’s books in home, and reading aloud at bedtime, and aloud ≥3 per wk immediately postintervention
Greatest effect for parents with less than a completed high school education.
ROR, Jones et al61Quasi-experimental Prospective controlled studyN = 352, Louisville, KY2–24 mo2None reportedMore likely to report enjoyment in shared reading 2 y postintervention
Low income families, mostly African American
ROR + M, Jones et al62Cohort studyN = 72, Southern United States12–36 mo3None reportedIncreased reading activities related to math (counting, shapes, numbers, addition/subtraction, and position), mathematics engagement score at 3 wk postintervention
Low income families, mostly African American
  • BBP, Baby Business Program; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; MCDI-SF, MacArthur Communication and Development Inventories – Short Form; PSI, Parenting Stress Index; THB, The Happiest Baby; VAS, Visual Analog Scale.