TABLE 3

Individual Univariate and Pooled ORs for Swaddling and SIDS

SourceSIDS Cases (Swaddled/N)Control Subjects (Swaddled/N)ORaAdjusted OR (Where Available)
n/N%n/N%OR95% CIOR95% CI
Ponsonby et al1638/10336.940/11235.71.050.59–1.87
Fleming et al1847/31914.7119/13009.21.631.13–2.36
Hauck et al1729/26011.226/26010.01.160.66–2.061.0b0.5–1.9
Blair et al1519/7824.45/875.75.822.02–16.7431.1c4.2–228.9
Total133/76017.5190/175910.81.531.18–1.97 (fixed effects)
1.580.97–2.58 (random effects)
Excluding Blair et al1.381.05–1.80 (fixed effects)
  • a The difference in swaddling within each individual study was adjusted for infant age, as were the pooled estimates for both the fixed and random effects models.

  • b Adjusted for maternal age, marital status, education, and index of prenatal care (using the number of prenatal visits and when prenatal care was initiated).

  • c Adjusted for infant age, daytime or nighttime sleep, prematurity, larger families, maternal consumption of >2 Units of alcohol in the last 24 hours, infant bed-sharing with an adult, co-sleeping with an adult on the sofa, infants sleeping outside the parental bedroom, use of pillows, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, infant found prone, and infant unwell in the last 24 hours.