TABLE 4

Secondary Outcomes

EMLA (n = 10)EMLA + Sucrose (n = 20)EMLA + Sucrose + DPNB (n = 20)EMLA + Sucrose + RB (n = 20)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)PMean (SD)PMean (SD)P
Heart rate, beats per min163.3 (13.23)152.03 (16.31).040a146.55 (15.63).004a139.27 (9.63)<.001a,b; .030b
Oxygen saturation, %95.92 (3.37)97.07 (2.19).89798.48 (1.73).21497.81 (1.6).439
Crying time, s45.37 (12.39)16.47 (14.58)<.001a11.53 (11.65)<.001a5.78 (6.4)<.001a; .034b
  • a Statistically significant difference between the current intervention group and the control group (EMLA).

  • b Statistically significant difference between the current intervention group and another intervention group (EMLA + sucrose and EMLA + sucrose + DPNB, respectively).