TABLE 1

Characteristics of the Sample (N = 1197) Comprising Children Aged 2 to 4 Years From Low-Income Households in the NHANES 2003–2008 and 2011–2012

CharacteristicWIC Nonparticipants (n = 478) WIC Participants (n = 719) P
Gender.10a
 Male257 (56.2)364 (48.3)
 Female221 (43.8)355 (51.7)
Race/ethnicity<.01a
 Non-Hispanic white150 (51.3)130 (30.4)
 Hispanic157 (21.8)352 (39.9)
 Non-Hispanic black136 (21.0)194 (22.4)
 Other/mixed35 (5.9)43 (7.3)
Education (household respondent)<.01a
 Less than high school graduate, no GED170 (28.7)341 (43.9)
 High school graduate or higher308 (71.3)378 (56.1)
Marriage/partner status.47a
 Single/unmarried/unpartnered156 (31.8)245 (35.5)
 Married/partnered322 (68.2)474 (64.5)
Food security.06a
 Food secure259 (56.8)304 (46.3)
 Marginally food secure72 (16.8)152 (17.4)
 Food insecure147 (26.4)263(36.3)
Weight category (child).65a
 Normal weight361 (74.8)525 (73.3)
 Overweight65 (15.2)99 (14.4)
 Obese52 (10.0)95 (12.3)
Age, mean ± SE, y3.07 ± 0.052.91 ± 0.04.02b
Income (%FPL), mean ± SE106 ± 4.084 ± 2.4<.01b
Total energy, mean ± SE, kcal1556 ± 321555 ± 22.98b
  • Unless otherwise indicated, data are presented as n (%). GED, General Educational Development test.

  • a P value from design-based χ2 test.

  • b P value for unadjusted linear regression with each continuous variable as the outcome and WIC status as the lone predictor.