Systematic Review: Individual Study Characteristics, FASD Studies Only (n = 10)

ReferenceStudy DesignSample SourceASEBA Version UsedaN; Age (Mean [SD]; or Range)ASEBA Assessor/Informant
Ernhart et al 199521Prospective cohortAll children born 1 Jan 1981 to 31 Mar 1982, to mothers screened for alcoholism in 1978 to 1981 at Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital (USA).CBCL (4–16 y, 1981)N:NR, CBCL orally administered to primary caregivers.
FAS: 5; No FAS: 221
Age range: 6–7 y
Olson et al 199817Retrospective cohort, matched control/ comparison groupsFAS: Cases from research patient list from the Fetal Alcohol Follow-up Study (Seattle, USA).CBCL (4–18 y, 1983, 1991, 1993)N:Self-administered (primary caregiver)
Control/comparison: The Seattle Longitudinal Prospective Study on Alcohol and Pregnancy.FAS: 9; Control (light/no PAE): 145; IQ comparison: 40
Age range: 4–16 y
Mattson and Riley 200035bRetrospective cohort, matched control groupFAS/heavy PAE: Children in an ongoing research project at the Center for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State Univ. (USA).CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:Self-administered (primary caregiver)
Control: Self-referred from community outreach and advertizing (San Diego, USA).FAS: 35; Heavy PAE (no FAS): 20
Heavy PAE (±FAS): 33; Control: 33
FAS/heavy PAE: 9.2 (3.5) y (range: 4.0–15.8 y); Control: 8.4 (3.7) y (range: 4.1–16.5 y)
Paley et al 200618Retrospective cohortA study on a social skills intervention which recruited children through a large medical center in the West Coast of the USA, through community mental health clinics, private practitioners, local schools, and the community.CBCL (6–18 y, 2001)N: 100Self-administered (primary caregiver)
TRF (6–18 y, 2001)Age: 8.6 (1.6) y (Range: 6.0–11.6 y)
Franklin et al 200814Retrospective cohortWashington State FAS DPN clinical database (Washington, USA).CBCL (school age forms; 1991, 2001).N: 44NR, primary caregiver
Age at diagnosis:
5 to 6.9 y: n = 14
7 to 8.9 y: n = 17
9 to 10.9 y: n = 13
Greenbaum et al 200915Retrospective cohort, control/ comparison groupsFASD: Data records of the Motherisk Clinic (FASD diagnostic service) at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto.CBCL (4–18 y, 2001)N:Self-administered (primary caregiver, teachers)
Control: Advertisements in the community or the Metropolitan Toronto District School Board.TRF (4–18 y, 2001)FASD: 33; Control: 34
FASD: 9.23 (NR); Control: 8.87 (NR)
Astley et al 201019Retrospective cohort, comparison groupsThe Washington State FAS DPN electronic clinical/research database of all residents (of all ages) evaluated for FASD in 1993–2005.CBCL (6–18 y, 2001)N: [For ASEBA data only; age 6–18 y]:Pediatrician and/or psychologist
FAS/PFAS: 51; Normal CNS/PAE: 25
9.9 (6.2) y (range: 7 d – 50.8 y)
Fagerlund et al 201113Retrospective cohort, matched control groupFASD: Children diagnosed and born in 1984–1996, from the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Univ. of Helsinki, and from a prospective follow-up study in Helsinki (Finland).CBCL (6–18 y, 2001 – Finnish and Swedish versions)N:NR, primary caregiver
Control: Finnish national population registry (random sampling).FASD: 73; Control: 40
FASD: 13.4 (3.8) y (range: 8–21 y); Control: NR
Jirikowic et al 201216Retrospective cohortChildren who were enrolled in a RCT of the Families Moving Forward Program intervention, recruited through the Univ. Washington FAS DPN clinical database (USA).CBCL (preschool, 2000; school-age, 2001)N: 52Trained psychometrists
8.53 (2.03) y (range: 5–12 y)
Stevens et al 201320Retrospective cohort, comparison groupFASD and PAE (no FASD): Data records of patients attending the Motherisk Clinic (FASD diagnostic service) at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, between 2005 and 2009.CBCL (4–18 y, 2001)N:Self-administered (primary caregiver, teachers)
TRF (4–18 y, 2001)[For CBCL]: FASD: 98; PAE (no FASD): 50
[For TRF]: FASD: 95; PAE (no FASD): 45
FASD: 10.3 (3.6); PAE (no FASD): 8.9 (3.4)
[P < .01]
  • Participant group data (N, age) are presented only for FASD and No FASD groups. Data for all subgroups included within each study can be found in Appendix 2.

  • NR, not reported; Univ., university; DPN, diagnostic and prevention network; M, male; F, female; RCT, randomized controlled trial. All rows except Ernhart et al indicate clinical studies as opposed to population-based cohort studies.

  • a ASEBA forms listed in the table reflect either what was specified by the authors of the articles and/or the reference(s) they referred to when providing details of their ASEBA assessment.

  • b Mattson and Riley reported ASEBA results for both (1) FAS versus PAE (without FAS); and (2) PAE (with and without FAS) versus Controls.