Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion criteria:
  • English language
  • Observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional)
  • Humans
  • Aged ≤18 y and assessed by using age-appropriate school-age forms valid for ages 4 to 18 y depending on the ASEBA version used
  • Diagnosis of a FASD (based on internationally recognized criteria); or
  • Specified PAE (where PAE results could be separated; and excluding other exposures unless controlled for). PAE was not assumed in cohorts of children of alcoholic parents where PAE was not specifically measured.
  • Primary: T scores, raw scores, and/or proportion of participants within defined clinical ranges (n, %, or ORs) for scales: Total competence, Total problems, Internalizing problems, and/or Externalizing problems, assessed by using the ASEBA School-Age Forms (ie, Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and/or Youth Self-Report). Percentile scores will not be analyzed but will be described.
  • Secondary: Raw scores, and/or proportion within defined clinical ranges (n, %, or ORs) for other (“syndrome,” narrowband, DSM-oriented, and 2007) scales, assessed by using the ASEBA School-Age Forms. T scores or percentile scores will be described but not analyzed. Proportion of critical items endorsed will also be recorded if reported.
  • Quantitative size effect including either an SE, SD, or 95% CI had to be reported.
Exclusion criteria:
  • Articles not available in the English language
  • Case studies, review articles, book chapters, abstracts, dissertations, news articles, clinical trials/intervention studies
  • Studies that looked at the effect of exposures other than alcohol as a primary exposure of interest, where PAE results could not be separated.
  • Studies that included conditions comorbid with diagnosis of a FASD, which may affect the primary outcomes of interest (unless they were controlled for).
  • Studies that reported data other than T scores, raw scores, or proportion (n, %, or ORs) within defined clinical ranges for individual ASEBA scales or forms.
  • Articles that only reported data graphically
  • Articles that combined scores from different ASEBA forms (eg, combined scores from the parent- and teacher-rated forms).
  • Scores obtained from ASEBA forms other than the school-age forms (eg, preschool forms).
  • DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.