TABLE 2

Pediatric Studies of Medical Cannabinoids

Study by Indication Authors, ySample SizeDiagnoses (Inclusion Criteria)Mean Age (Range)DesignMedicationMeasuresFindings
CINV
 Elder and Knoderer,7 201558Childhood cancer13.9 (6–18)Retrospective chart reviewDronabinolEpisodes of vomitingPositive response (0–1 bouts of vomiting) in 60% of children
 Abrahamov et al,8 19958Hematologic cancers6.6 (3–13)Open-label trialΔ-8-THCEpisodes of vomitingPrevented vomiting in all 480 total treatment cycles
 Chan et al,9 198730Childhood cancer11.8 (3.5–17.8)Double-blind, crossover RCTNabiloneEpisodes for retching and vomitingReduced retching and vomiting compared with prochloperazine
 Dalzell et al,10 198623Childhood cancer7.9 (0.8–17)Double-blind, crossover RCTNabiloneEpisodes of vomiting, nausea scale (0–3)Reduced nausea severity and vomiting compared with domperidone
 Ekert et al,11 197919 and 14Childhood cancer12.5 (5–19)Two double-blind RCTsΔ-9-THCEpisodes of nausea and vomitingReduced nausea and vomiting compared with metoclopramide or prochloperazine
Epilepsy
 Devinsky et al,12 201761Treatment-refractory epilepsy in Dravet syndrome9.8 y (2.3–18.4)RCTCBDConvulsive-seizure frequencyReduced convulsive seizures compared with a placebo
 Gofshteyn et al,13 20177FIRESa7.1 (3.9–8.5)Open-label trialCBDSeizure frequency and duration, EEGReduced seizures in 86% of patients
 Kaplan et al,14 20175Treatment-refractory epilepsy in SWS8.8 (2–19)Open-label trialCBDSeizure frequencySeizures improved in 60% of patients
 Treat et al,15 2017119Epilepsy7.5 (0.1–18)Retrospective chart reviewOCESeizure frequencySeizures improved in 49% of patients, with 24% responders (>50% reduction)
 Devinsky et al,16 2016137Treatment-refractory epilepsy10.5 (1–22.2)Open-label trialCBDNo. of seizures, LAEP, PESQ37% decrease in monthly motor seizures
 Tzadok et al,17 201674Treatment-refractory epilepsy1–18Retrospective chart reviewCBD-enriched OCESeizure frequencyReduced seizures in 89% of patients
 Hussain et al,18 2015117Treatment-refractory epilepsy6 (3–10)Parent surveyCBD-enriched OCESeizure frequencyReduced seizures in 85% of patients
 Press et al,19 201575Treatment-refractory epilepsy7.3 (0.5–18.3)Retrospective chart reviewOCESeizure frequencyReduced seizures in 57% of patients
 Saade and Joshi,20 20151MMPSIa10 moCase reportCBDSeizure frequency, EEGReduced seizure frequency
 Porter and Jacobson,21 201319Treatment-refractory epilepsy9.1 (2–16)Parent surveyCBD-enriched OCESeizure frequencyReduced seizures in 84% of patients
 Lorenz,22 20046Neurodegenerative disease, mitochondriopathy, posthypoxic state, epilepsy12.3 (8.8–14)Case seriesDronabinolSeizuresReduced seizures in 2 of the patients
Neuropathic paina
 Rudich et al,23 20032Comorbid MDD14.5 (14–15)Case reportDronabinol0–100 numerical rating scaleForty percent to 60% reduction in the affective component of pain
PTSD
 Shannon and Opila-Lehman,24 20161Comorbid anxiety, insomnia, prenatal cannabis exposure10Case reportCBDSCARED, SDSCDecreased anxiety and improved sleep
Spasticitya
 Kuhlen et al,25 201616Neurodegenerative disease, CNS syndromes, asphyxia11.4 (1.3–26.6)Retrospective chart reviewDronabinolSpasticityReduced spasticity in 75% of patients
 Lorenz,26 20021NCL3.3Case reportDronabinolSpasticity, myoclonusReduced spasticity and myoclonus
Tourette syndromea
 Hasan et al,27 20101Comorbid ADHD15Case reportΔ-9-THCYGTSS, GTS-QoL, CTRS-R:LDecreased tic severity, improved quality of life
  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CNS, central nervous system; CTRS-R:L, Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale–Revised: Long; FIRES, febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome; GTS-QoL, Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome–Quality of Life Scale; LAEP, Liverpool Adverse Events Profile; MDD, major depressive disorder; MMPSI, malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy; NCL, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; OCE, oral cannabis extract; PESQ, Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire; SCARED, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders; SDSC, Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; SWS, Sturge-Weber syndrome; YGTSS, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale.

  • a Treatment-refractory condition.