SSB Outcomes. Control Versus Calorie Label Versus Warning Label Conditions

Percentages and Means (SEs)Control Versus CalorieCalorie Versus WarningControl Versus Warning
ControlCalorie LabelWarning Label
Vending machine choice
Choosing an SSB, %a,b59.9a (2.4)53.3a (2.5)40.4b (1.2).07<.001<.001
SSB perceptions and intentionsc
 Child would find delicious (1–7)4.6a (0.06)4.6a (0.07)4.6a (0.03).46.22.78
 Healthy (1–7)a3.8a (0.07)3.7a (0.07)3.4b (0.04).68<.001<.001
 Purchase intention (1–7)a3.8a (0.07)3.8a (0.07)3.4b (0.04).27<.001<.001
 Willingness to pay$2.09a (0.09)$1.93a (0.07)$1.95a (0.04).35.78.37
 Allow child to drink (1–7)a4.1a (0.07)4.1a (0.07)3.6b (0.04).49<.001<.001
 Make child feel energized (1–7)a4.7a (0.06)4.4b (0.07)4.3c (0.04).003.04<.001
 Help child focus (1–7)a,d4.3a (0.06)3.6b (0.07)3.3c (0.04)<.001<.001<.001
 Amount of added sugar (1–4)a2.8b (0.03)2.9b (0.03)3.1a (0.01).16<.001<.001
 Estimated caloriesa91.7c (5.41)148.3a (5.84)112.8b (3.35)<.001<.001.005
SSB disease risk
 Weight gain (1–7)a4.5b (0.06)4.2c (0.06)4.6a (0.03).03<.001.02
 Heart disease (1–7)a4.2b (0.07)4.0b (0.06)4.4a (0.03).09<.001.003
 Diabetes (1–7)a4.3b (0.07)4.2b (0.06)4.6a (0.03).26<.001<.001
 Healthy life (1–7)a4.4a (0.06)3.7b (0.07)3.4c (0.04)<.001<.001<.001
Coupon choice
 Number of SSB coupons (0–12)a3.3a (0.13)3.0a (0.12)2.4b (0.06).28<.001<.001
 Number of non-SSB coupons (0–8)3.2a (0.09)2.9a (0.09)3.2a (0.05).07011.51
  • N = 2381. Raw statistics are displayed. The “perceptions and intentions” and “disease risk” means are averages across 9 SSBs. Within each row, percentages or means with different subscripts differ at P < .05 (after correcting for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni-Holm procedure; Holm15). Statistical tests were regressions controlling for the self-reported frequency of purchasing SSB and non-labeled beverages. Analyses of “estimated calories” were conducted on log-transformed estimates (ie, log10[Calories+1]); the table converts the log means and SEs into calories (ie, using 10log to calculate the mean).

  • a Differs significantly across conditions.

  • b The 12 SSBs were Pom Coconut, Nestea, 7Up, Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Tropicana Lemonade, Coca Cola, Arizona Green Tea, Mountain Dew, Purity Organic: Peach Paradise, Minute Maid Lemonade, Old Orchard Ruby Red Grapefruit Juice, and Mountain Berry Blast Powerade. The 8 non-SSBs were Dasani Water, Simply Orange, Schweppes Seltzer Water, Diet Coca Cola, Honest Green Tea, Tropicana Orange Juice, Polar Seltzer Water, and Power-C Dragonfruit Vitamin Water.

  • c The 9 SSBs were Coca Cola, Arizona Green Tea, Mountain Dew, Minute Maid Lemonade, Mountain Berry Blast Powerade, Pom Coconut, Nestea Iced Tea, Purity Organic: Peach Paradise, and Schweppes Ginger Ale. The 5 nonlabeled beverages were Tropicana Orange Juice, Diet Coca Cola, Dasani Water, Honest Green Tea, and Power-C Dragonfruit Vitamin Water.

  • d For 1 beverage, Minute Maid Lemonade, we unintentionally omitted the help child focus question from the control condition. Therefore, this item was removed from all analyses of the help child focus variable.