SSB Outcomes by Warning Label Condition

California WarningWeight Gain WarningPreventable WarningType 2 Diabetes Warning
Vending machine choice
Choosing an SSB, %a35.7a (2.4)42.3a (2.5)43.6a (2.5)40.0a (2.5)
SSB perceptions and intentionsb
 Child would find delicious (1–7)4.5a (0.07)4.6a (0.06)4.5a (0.07)4.6a (0.07)
 Healthy (1–7)3.2a (0.08)3.4a (0.08)3.3a (0.08)3.4a (0.08)
 Purchase intention (1–7)3.3a (0.08)3.5a (0.08)3.4a (0.08)3.5a (0.08)
 Willingness to pay$1.87a (0.08)$2.01a (0.08)$2.01a (0.08)$1.91a (0.08)
 Allow child to drink (1–7)3.5a (0.08)3.7a (0.08)3.6a (0.08)3.7a (0.08)
 Make child feel energized (1–7)4.2a (0.07)4.4a (0.07)4.3a (0.08)4.3a (0.07)
 Help child focus (1–7)c3.2a (0.08)3.4a (0.08)3.4a (0.08)3.3a (0.08)
 Amount of added sugar (1–4)3.1a (0.03)3.1a (0.03)3.1a (0.03)3.1a (0.03)
 Estimated caloriesd101.6b (5.97)109.1ab (6.95)128.1a (6.96)113.6ab (6.87)
SSB disease risk
 Weight gain (1–7)4.6a (0.07)4.6a (0.07)4.5a (0.07)4.7a (0.07)
 Heart disease (1–7)4.4a (0.07)4.4a (0.07)4.3a (0.07)4.5a (0.07)
 Diabetes (1–7)4.5a (0.07)4.6a (0.07)4.5a (0.07)4.7a (0.07)
 Healthy life (1–7)3.4a (0.07)3.5a (0.07)3.5a (0.07)3.4a (0.08)
Coupon choice
 Number of SSB coupons (0–12)2.3a (0.13)2.5a (0.12)2.4a (0.13)2.2a (0.12)
 Number of non-SSB coupons (0–8)3.3a (0.10)3.1a (0.09)3.1a (0.09)3.2a (0.09)
  • N = 2381. Raw statistics are displayed. Data are presented as percentages and means (and SEs). The “perceptions and intentions” and “disease risk” means are averages across 9 SSBs. Within each row, percentages or means with different subscripts differ at P < .05 (after correcting for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni-Holm procedure; Holm15). After applying this correction, the only statistically significant P value in this table is the comparison between the California and preventable labels for estimated calories (P = .001). Statistical tests were regressions controlling for the self-reported frequency of purchasing SSB and non-labeled beverages. Analyses of “estimated calories” were conducted on log-transformed estimates (ie, log10[Calories+1]); the table converts the log means and SEs into calories (ie, using 10log to calculate the mean).

  • a The 12 SSBs were Pom Coconut, Nestea, 7Up, Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Tropicana Lemonade, Coca Cola, Arizona Green Tea, Mountain Dew, Purity Organic: Peach Paradise, Minute Maid Lemonade, Old Orchard Ruby Red Grapefruit Juice, and Mountain Berry Blast Powerade. The 8 non-SSBs were Dasani Water, Simply Orange, Schweppes Seltzer Water, Diet Coca Cola, Honest Green Tea, Tropicana Orange Juice, Polar Seltzer Water, and Power-C Dragonfruit Vitamin Water.

  • b The 9 SSBs were Coca Cola, Arizona Green Tea, Mountain Dew, Minute Maid Lemonade, Mountain Berry Blast Powerade, Pom Coconut, Nestea Iced Tea, Purity Organic: Peach Paradise, and Schweppes Ginger Ale. The 5 nonlabeled beverages were Tropicana Orange Juice, Diet Coca Cola, Dasani Water, Honest Green Tea, and Power-C Dragonfruit Vitamin Water.

  • c For 1 beverage, Minute Maid Lemonade, we unintentionally omitted the help child focus question from the control condition. Therefore, this item was removed from all analyses of the help child focus variable.

  • d Differs significantly across conditions.