TABLE 2

Bivariable and Multivariable Analysis of the Association of Race and Ethnicity with Antibiotic Provision for Viral ARTIs

DemographicOR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Race and ethnicity
 NH whiteReferenceReference
 NH black0.41 (0.35–0.49)b0.44 (0.36–0.53)b
 Hispanic0.57 (0.47–0.69)b0.65 (0.53–0.81)b
 Other0.64 (0.50–0.82)b0.68 (0.52–0.87)b
Sex
MaleReferenceReference
Female1.02 (0.90–1.16)1.03 (0.90–1.17)
Age group
 0–1ReferenceReference
 2–41.01 (0.86–1.18)1.09 (0.93–1.28)
 5–91.13 (0.94–1.37)1.19 (0.98–1.44)
 10–181.34 (1.07–1.67)b1.40 (1.11–1.77)b
Insurance status
 PrivateReferenceReference
 Medicaid0.61 (0.52–0.71)b0.78 (0.66–0.93)b
 Self-pay0.59 (0.41–0.85)b0.73 (0.50–1.05)
 Other0.87 (0.47–1.62)0.95 (0.51–1.78)
Triage acuity level
 5 (least acute)ReferenceReference
 41.10 (0.93–1.31)1.09 (0.92–1.30)
 31.55 (1.27–1.89)b1.44 (1.16–1.78)b
 22.02 (1.49–2.72)b1.72 (1.25–2.37)b
 1 (most acute)
ED site
 AReferenceReference
 B0.57 (0.40–0.82)b0.90 (0.62–1.31)
 C0.81 (0.60–1.10)0.86 (0.62–1.19)
 D0.85 (0.63–1.14)1.02 (0.75–1.39)
 E1.61 (1.17–2.21)b1.21 (0.87–1.69)
 F1.21 (0.92–1.60)1.49 (1.11–1.98)b
 G0.85 (0.61–1.20)0.66 (0.46–0.95)b
Provider type
 PEM attendingReferenceReference
 Pediatrician1.04 (0.85–1.27)1.19 (0.95–1.48)
 General emergency medicine attending0.72 (0.09–5.85)0.84 (0.10–6.90)
 Fellow0.97 (0.68–1.37)1.06 (0.75–1.50)
 PA/NP0.67 (0.52–0.86)b0.89 (0.68–1.18)
 Other0.38 (0.19–0.76)b0.38 (0.18–0.81)b
  • PA, physician assistant; NP, nurse practitioner; —, insufficient outcome.

  • a Adjusted for sex, age, insurance status, triage acuity level, ED site, and provider type.

  • b Signifies statistical significance with P value < .05.