TABLE 2

Effects of Screening for Postpartum Depression in WCC on Primary and Secondary Outcomes, Crude and Adjusted for Potential Confounders: Multilevel Logistic Models Leading to ORs and Multilevel Linear Regression Models Leading to Regression Coefficients on the Basis of Imputed Data Sets

OutcomesIntervention (n = 1843)CAU (n = 1246)Crude DifferencePAdjusted DifferenceaPEffect Size
Primaryb (% [n]; OR [95% CI]; Cohen’s d)
 MINI major depression0.6% (11)2.5% (31)0.23 (0.10 to 0.49)<.0010.30 (0.13 to 0.66).0010.66
 MINI minor and major depression3.0% (56)8.4% (105)0.33 (0.21 to 0.53)<.0010.38 (0.24 to 0.61)<.0010.53
Secondaryc (mean; B [95% CI]; B/SD)
 Mother level, score
  SENR totald100.898.02.68 (1.77 to 3.59)<.0012.19 (1.48 to 2.89)<.0010.23
  SF-12 PCSd52.452.8−0.43 (−1.12 to 0.32).12−0.53 (−1.29 to 0.23).070.06
  SF-12 MCSd51.749.22.56 (1.59 to 3.53)<.0012.17 (1.33 to 3.02)<.0010.26
  STAI-6 totale33.937.3−3.47 (−4.99 to −1.98)<.001−3.09 (−4.43 to −1.75)<.0010.27
 Child level, score
  ASQ-SEe13.014.4−1.36 (−2.45 to −0.26).003−1.06 (−2.14 to 0.01).020.10
  • B, regression coefficient; MCS, mental composite summary; PCS, physical composite summary; SENR, Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Nurturing Role questionnaire; STAI-6, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 6-item Short Form (state scale).

  • a Based on logistic regression model with the following variables: urbanity of living area, mother employed, lifetime history of depression, and started breastfeeding after birth.

  • b Measured at 9 months postpartum.

  • c Measured at 12 months postpartum.

  • d Higher score indicates more positive outcome.

  • e Lower score indicates more positive outcome.