TABLE 1

Demographics of Participants Who Had Sustained Concussions, Had ULI Only, or Were Well Visitors to the ED

CONC (n = 90)ULI (n = 90)Well (n = 84)Pa
Age
 Mean (SD)10.85(3.20)11.00(3.20)10.54(3.24).62
 Median (IQR)11.50(7.66–13.48)11.04(8.21–13.89)10.04(7.42–13.32).60
Boy, n (%)63(70.0)45(50.0)30(35.7)<.001
Any previous concussions, n (%)
 No67(74.4)71(78.9)74(88.1).09
 Yes17(18.9)10(11.1)5(6.0)
 Unknown6(6.7)9(10.0)5(6.0)
Hospitalized, CT, or MRI, n (%)
 No71(78.9)70(77.8)79(94.0).008
 Yes5(5.6)5(5.6)1(1.2)
 Unknown14(15.6)15(16.7)3(3.6)
Acute concussion characteristics
Loss of consciousness, n (%)
 No55(61.11)
 Yes24(26.67)
 Suspected5(5.56)
 Unknown6(6.67)
Vomiting, n (%)
 No63(70.00)
 Yes27(30.00)
PTA, n (%)
 No47(52.22)
 Yes37(41.11)
 Unknown6(6.67)
Seizure, n (%)
 No83(92.22)
 Yes3(3.33)
 Unknown4(4.44)
Past medical history
Headaches and/or migraines, n (%)
 No71(78.9)70(77.8)75(89.3).051
 Yes6(6.7)5(5.6)5(6.0)
 Unknown13(14.4)15(16.7)3(3.6)
Learning disability, ADHD, dyslexia, or seizures, n (%)
 No75(83.3)72(80.0)78(92.9).030
 Yes6(6.7)3(3.3)2(2.4)
 Unknown9(10.0)15(16.7)3(3.6)
Psychiatric disorder, n (%)
 No78(86.7)71(78.9)78(92.9).035
 Yes5(5.6)4(4.4)2(2.4)
 Unknown7(7.8)15(16.7)3(3.6)
Family history of above, n (%)
 No56(62.2)57(63.3)68(81.0).020
 Yes21(23.3)18(20.0)11(13.1)
 Unknown13(14.4)15(16.7)4(4.8)
Medications, n (%)
 None69(76.7)70(77.8)70(83.3).48
 ADHD and/or anxiety1(1.1)1(1.1)0(0.0)
 Antibiotics1(1.1)2(2.2)1(1.2)
 Antidepressants2(2.2)0(0.0)0(0.0)
 Asthma 4(4.4)5(5.6)6(7.1)
 Insulin0(0.0)3(3.3)0(0.0)
 Other4(4.4)1(1.1)4(4.8)
 Unknown4(4.4)7(7.8)3(3.6)
  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CT, computed tomography; IQR, interquartile range; PTA, posttraumatic amnesia. —, not applicable.

  • a Analysis of variance for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Age presented as median (IQR), was tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test.