TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of CI Recipients by Sign Language Exposure Group

CharacteristicNo Sign (n = 35)Short-term Sign (n = 26)Long-term Sign (n = 36)Total (n = 97)
Girl, n (%)17 (49)9 (35)21 (58)47 (48)
Household income, n (%) < $50 k11 (32)11 (44)15 (42)37 (39)
Maternal education, n (%) graduated college24 (69)13 (50)18 (50)55 (57)
Parent-infant program, n (%)**14 (40)20 (77)23 (64)57 (59)
Aided PTA better ear, dBa75.1 (22.0)73.1 (23.6)77.8 (21.8)75.6 (22.2)
Age at onset of deafness, mo0.3 (1.2)1.2 (3.4)1.3 (3.6)0.9 (2.9)
Amplification age, mo9.4 (8.6)10.8 (8.3)11.5 (7.5)10.6 (8.1)
Activation age, mo19.3 (8.3)22.1 (7.3)22.8 (8.3)21.4 (8.1)
Maternal sensitivityb5.5 (0.7)5.3 (0.7)5.4 (0.7)5.4 (0.7)
Baseline IQc94.5 (19.3)97.4 (21.2)98.5 (14.2)96.8 (18.1)
Vocabularyd14.7 (41.6)10.8 (18.4)16.2 (59.4)14.2 (44.6)
Auditory perceptione9.8 (9.4)7.0 (6.9)5.8 (7.3)7.5 (8.1)
  • Data are expressed as mean (SD) unless otherwise noted. PTA, pure-tone average.

  • a Average of available thresholds for tested frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz, where at least 1 frequency was tested (88/97 of the participants had 4-frequency pure-tone average).

  • b Maternal sensitivity scale from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Childcare Study codes.

  • c Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II) (Bayley9).

  • d Spoken words both understood and said on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MBCDI: Words and Gestures Form; Fenson et al10).

  • e Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) (Robbins et al11).

  • ** χ2 P value = .01.