TABLE 2

Maternal and Neonatal Characteristics According to Infant HC Growth Velocity During the Time Period Between NICU Admission and Discharge

ΔHC z ScoreP
−1 to +1 Group 1 (N = 849)<−2 Group 2 (N = 477)−2 to −1.01 Group 3 (N = 511)+1.01 to +2 Group 4 (N = 78)>+2 Group 5 (N = 58)
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age, mean (SD)31.0 (6.0)30.5 (5.9)30.8 (5.8)31.0 (5.8)30.7 (5.6).55
 Caregiver 1 education (college+), n (%)437 (55.1)228 (54.2)251 (53.6)38 (50.0)28 (51.9).91
 Hypertension, n (%)147 (17.7)76 (16.3)68 (13.6)9 (11.8)11 (19.6).24
 Antenatal steroid, n (%)767 (92.2)409 (88.2)445 (89.5)65 (86.7)46 (82.1).03a
 Cesarean delivery, n (%)495 (58.5)282 (59.4)283 (55.6)43 (55.1)35 (60.3).73
Neonatal characteristics
 Birth weight (g), mean (SD)960 (213)900 (233)967 (226)912 (206)905 (210)<.01
 Weight z- core change, mean (SD)−0.83 (0.79)−1.52 (1.01)−1.27 (0.68)−0.20 (0.72)−0.32 (1.45)<.01
 Gestational age (wk), mean (SD)26.5 (1.3)26.1 (1.5)26.5 (1.4)26.4 (1.3)26.3 (1.4)<.01
 Sex (male), n (%)460 (54.2)247 (51.8)249 (48.7)45 (57.7)33 (56.9).26
 SGA, n (%)58 (6.8)32 (6.7)20 (3.9)10 (12.8)6 (10.3).01
 Multiple gestations, n (%)237 (27.9)138 (28.9)138 (27.0)27 (34.6)19 (32.8).61
 SNAP-II score, median (IQR)14 (8, 19)14 (9, 21)14 (8, 21)9 (7, 21)14 (9, 19).17
 Ventricular enlargement on head ultrasound at discharge, n (%)88 (10.8)78 (17.1)65 (13.2)10 (13.0)9 (16.1).03b
 PVL, n (%)22 (2.8)24 (5.6)30 (6.5)7 (9.2)7 (12.3)<.01
 TPN, mean days (SD)21.5 (14.8)40.5 (31.5)26.2 (17.8)27.5 (18.6)27.9 (15.1)<.01
 Days IPPV or HFOV, mean (SD)13.8 (19.0)25.0 (26.7)13.8 (17.7)18.4 (20.6)23.8 (23.6)<.01
Postnatal support
 Physical therapist301 (46.5)201 (52.8)191 (52.0)36 (59.0)41 (78.9)<.01
 Occupational therapist253 (39.0)195 (51.2)160 (43.2)26 (44.1)25 (48.1).01
  • HFOV, high frequency oscillatory ventilation; IPPV, intermittent positive pressure ventilation; IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Antenatal steroids refers to any antenatal steroid use.

  • b Ventricular enlargement defined as ventricular size >10 mm on either side.