TABLE 6

Psychopathology in Individuals With Delayed Puberty

Study (Reference)YearLocation/NameNAge at Evaluation, Years ± SD or RangeOutcome VariableConclusion
Joinson et al762013United Kingdom3648 women14–16.5Depressive symptomsOR up to 1.52, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.05 for age at menarche 11.5 to 13.5 y vs ≥13.5 y, P = .007
18–19No difference in OR for age at menarche 11.5 to 13.5 y vs ≥13.5 (OR 1.07–1.18, all Ps >.05)
Boden et al772011New Zealand497 women15–18Major depressionNo difference in % outcome for age at menarche 14–15 y vs 12–13 y (32.5% vs 30.9%, P > .50)
Herva et al782004Northern Finland3952 women31DepressionOR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.6 for age at menarche ≥16 y vs 12–15 y
Galvao et al792014Meta-analysis: New Zealand and Northern Finland4449 women15–31Major depression/ depressionNo significant risk of depression for age at menarche ≥14 y vs <14 y (RR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.88)
Opoliner et al802014United States/ Growing Up Today Study9039 women20–26Depressive symptomsNo difference in OR for age at menarche >14.3 y vs 12–14.3 y (OR 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.18)
Day et al812015United Kingdom/UK Biobank Study250 037 women40–69DepressionNo difference in OR for age at menarche 15–19 y vs 12–14 y (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.13, P > 7.48 × 10–5)
Conley and Rudolph822009United States82 men13.4DepressionLater perceived pubertal timing was associated higher levels of depression (β = −0.31, P < .05)
Graber et al832004United States392 men24.2Disruptive behavior disorderOR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5 for perceived late pubertal timing vs on time
Substance useOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.9 for perceived late pubertal timing vs on time
Day et al812015United Kingdom/UK Biobank Study197 714 men40–69Anxiety/panic attacksOR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.67 for perceived late voice breaking vs on time, P < 7.48 × 10–5
DepressionOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.49 for perceived late voice breaking vs on time, P < 7.48 × 10–5
  • CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk.