Physical Examination as Part of Nociceptive Evaluation

Physical Examination TechniquePotential Nociceptive Pain Source
Inspection of eyes for tears and conjunctival injectionCorneal abrasion
Inspection of dentition, mouth, and throatDental caries and abscess, gingivitis, tonsillitis
Inspection and palpation of shunt catheter siteVentriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction
Inspection and movement of gastrostomy tubeGastrostomy tube tension associated with growth
Inspection and palpation of abdomenConstipation, distention
Inspection of skinHair tourniquet or pressure ulcer
Inspection, palpation, and movement of extremitiesOccult fracture
Palpation and range-of-motion of jointsSubluxation (especially hips)